Essay Examples on Ramapo College

Demographic Differences of Employees Behavior

This study addresses the demographic differences of employees behavior in private sector banks in Jaffna district This chapter contains the background of the study research problem research question objectives of the study significance of the study and outline of the study 1 1Background of the study Previously many studies have largely discussed about the employee demography Peffer 1983 said that employee demography can be defined as the study of the composition of a social entity in terms of its members attributes Pfeffer 1983 303 The author pointed that demographics factors consist of gender age ethnicity occupation seniority salary levels marital and family status Pfeffer 1985 74 suggests that Sensitivity to demographic effects can help provide a context to understand organizational behavior Employee behavior is very important in a working environment Employee behavior is defined as an employee s reaction to a particular situation at workplace At workplace Employees need to behave sensibly not only to gain appreciation and respect from others but also to maintain a healthy work culture When employees feel not satisfied or demotivated they become less creative less productive To achieve its goals an organization must satisfy the employees so that they can increase productivity and have efficiency to work with motivation in any organization Employees work community includes co workers supervisors subordinates and customers Typically it consists of individuals of differing demographic characteristics The demographic characteristics include visible attributes like age race gender and less visible attributes such as tenure education functional background Now women and older individuals are holding jobs to a much greater extent than before

2 pages | 511 words
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Takahashi and Yamanaka Stem Cells Biology

Eleven years ago Takahashi and Yamanaka brought to light a breakthrough in the history of stem cells biology They were able to create induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs originated from mouse fibroblasts by expressing on them four embryonic transcription factors Oct4 Sox2 Klf4 and c Myc which are known as Yamanaka factors 1 The most important characteristic about iPS cells is that they share a high level of resemblance with embryonic stem cells regarding to their morphology the genes they express the way they differentiate and the epigenetic patterns that they acquire both in vitro and in vivo 2 Ever since human iPSC technology has been undoubtedly proven to be a very promising aspect of Regenerative Medicine and Pharmaceutical Industry since they can be used in stem cell based therapies human disease modeling and drug discovery 3 The reason of efficacy of this technology in aforementioned approaches is the fact that iPSCs are derived from the same person autologous cells in which they are to be used as a treatment or as a medium for drug screening Therefore the risk of rejection of the treatment by the immune system of the patient is limited Moreover iPSCs technology has eliminated any kind of conflicts in modern society regarding their use by replacing the use of human embryonic stem cells hESCs in respective approaches 4 However there seem to be some limitations regarding iPSC technology and one of them is the low reprogramming efficiency of iPS cells 5 This low efficiency is connected to a phenomenon called epigenetic memory which refers to residual epigenetic signatures of the somatic tissue of origin 6 Furthermore reprogramming process can also lead to complete alteration of the pre existing somatic epigenetic memory and to the creation of a new epigenetic signature that is indicative of the upcoming differentiated cell type Consequently the epigenetic memory phenomenon consists an obstacle that needs to be overcome for a more effective iPS reprogramming 7 Epigenetics and iPSCs The term Epigenetics refers to the interaction between our genetic material and the environment through the developmental process It includes any reversible and inheritable change in the functional genome that does not affect the DNA sequence 8 Although exogenously introduced transcription factors are responsible for the iPSC reprogramming epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation can influence the progress and the efficiency of the transition to pluripotency Epigenetic changes during iPSC reprogramming DNA methylation

2 pages | 783 words
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