Essay Example on Rationale Mosquitoes carry more diseases than any other group of Insects








In the Philippines alone the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the leading cause of hospitalizations due to Dengue Fever or Malaria related illnesses Commercial use of artificial larvicides have caused widespread ecological disruptions potential health risks and not to mention the high cost of production and manufacturing these chemical larvicides Throughout the years people and researchers alike have been looking for a natural eco friendly and cost efficient alternative to commercial larvicides Eco friendly all natural larvicides have been reported as useful to control mosquitoes in their most vulnerable state By using plant extracts of various species prior researchers have been able to produce effective larvicides With this in mind the researchers have decided to conduct a study to examine the potential larvicidal properties of a plant that has never been used as a test subject yet the Rhoeo discolor Tradescantia spathacea

The Rhoeo discolor Tradescantia spathacea is a herbaceous somewhat fleshy plant that has a distinct purple coloring on the underside of its leaves According to our early research findings there have been several studies that have shown that the Rhoeo discolor Tradescantia spathacea has antioxidant antiviral antimicrobial properties García Varela et al 2015 The Rhoeo discolor Tradescantia spathacea has also been reported to have insecticidal properties Stuart 2016 The focus of this study is to examine whether Rhoeo discolor Tradescantia spathacea crude leaf extract is a viable larvicidal agent If the results of the study prove the Rhoeo discolor leaf extract is effective in controlling the mortality of the Aedes aegypti wrigglers it would not only prove the researchers successful but it could help the people because this species of plant is readily available here in the Philippines and also provide an all natural eco friendly alternative to commercial larvicides Theoretical Background The two variables that we will be studied in this research is the crude leaf extract of the Tradescantia spathacea and its effect on the larvae of the Aedes aegypti mosquito The common name of theTradescantia spathacea plant is rhoeo discolor It is a member of the Commelinaceae or spiderwort family Stuart 2016 Rhoeo discolor is a perennial succulent herb with bi colored leaves the top of its leaves has a dark green shade to them and the bottom has a distinct dark purple hue Duever 2000 The rhoeo discolor has been proven to have antioxidant antimicrobial antimutagenic and antigenotoxic properties Stuart 2016 According to a recent study done on the antimicrobial properties of the rhoeo discolor the rhoeo discolor exhibited high levels of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids saponins carotenoids anthocyanins terpenoids ferulic acid chlorogenic acid vanillic acid p coumaric acid and steroidal compounds García Varela et al 2015 

We believe that the rhoeo discolor s high levels of the secondary metabolite saponin may be responsible for its reported insecticidal property Plants have found many ways to fight against insects by using secondary metabolites According to a study by Belwinder Singh and Amritpal Kaur one such secondary metabolite that is produced by some species of plants is the triterpenoidal compound known as saponin The researchers mentioned above further state that saponins have a diverse range of bioactivities and because of their chemical composition they are known as surface active compounds Surface active compounds have been known to have antimicrobial antioxidant insecticidal nematocidal and molluscidal activities Singh Kaur 2017 The test subject of this research is the larvae wrigglers of the Aedes aegypti mosquito According to an article in the Oxford Academic Journals the yellow fever mosquito scientific name Aedes aegypti is one of the deadliest animal in the world it is the primary vector of yellow fever Zika virus dengue fever and chikungunya In the Philippines the Aedes aegypti or any mosquito really are almost as common as the housefly The Aedes aegypti mosquito commonly lay their eggs in small containers that hold water such as tree holes cups bowls discarded tires flower pots tin cans clogged drainages and many other objects which puts them in close contact with humans Levine They are active during the day but are most active two hours before sunrise and two hours after sunset Levine Review of Related Studies In a study conducted by Garcia Valera R et al 2015 it was proven that the phytochemicals found in T spathacea crude extract had antimicrobial effects against Gram positive 

Listeria innocua and Streptococcus mutans Gram negative Escherichia coli and Candida albicans but had least effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa In the test conducted the analytical data showed high concentrations of phenolic compounds containing terpenes saponins coumaric acid ferulic acid and mostly anthocyanin Test concentrations used included 1 1 5 2 2 5 3 3 5 4 500 µg mL Garcia Valera R et al 2015 In another study conducted by Gonzales Avila et al 2003 ethanolic crude extract ECE from T spathacea was proven to be antimutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 pretreated with ROS generating nonfloxacin and has an antioxidant property but has a lesser effect than quarcetin but is more effective than ascorbic acid Gonzales Avila et al 2003 Antimutagenic meaning they are agent that reduce the rate of mutation Antimutagenic Medical Definition

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