Essay Example on Research or project work in the field of Biotechnology

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The main objective of my purpose of application is that to work efficiently and contribute my best and my ideas in the research or project work in the field of Biotechnology I have a keen interest to work with scientists and delegates who are working in abroad as it is my long term strategy and contribute my best ever efforts for the development of the project and to and to serve the mankind and the world through my valuable contributions in the field of Biotechnology This program also gives platform for the young undergraduates to enhance their laboratory practical and research experiences which would be a great honorary opportunity for me and will be more prestigious to my growing carrier I would me full dedication and work hard for the research work I am keenly interested in the field of Microbiology I possess and always will follow good laboratory practices during my Microbiology laboratory I want to contribute to the research work in the field of microbiology My area of study and review are the EXTREMOPHILIC microorganisms and Industrial Biotechnology My idea is to produce biofuels from the 2nd Generation agricultural feedstocks which includes Saccharide wastes like sugarcane bagasse corn stover rice straw food wastes disposed off These biomass wastes are a rich source of cellulose lignocellulose hemicellulose etc The extremophiles are microorganisms that are robust to various harsh climatic environments They include thermophiles psychrophiles halophiles barophiles acidophiles alkalophiles dinococcus etc 



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My objective or proposal is the conversion of the 2 Generation feedstock to useful products such as BIO FUEL which is an ever increasing demand to the present world This could be achieved by the use of thermophilic anaerobes and their enzymes which are fermented on the lignocellulose hemicellulose biomass and thereby converting to biofuels by consolidated bioprocessing technology However other agriculture wastes like rice husk and cassava wastes rich in starch can be hydrolyzed with the help of amylase to glucose and which in turn can be used as a carbon source for ethanol production The main objective of using the thermophilic microorganisms is that to reduce the cost of pre treatment of the biomass or the feedstock The thermophilic bacteria directly utilize the lignocellulose hemicellulose as carbon source for the bioprocessing and there no requirement for the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to be converted to pentose or hexose sugars The thermophilic anaerobes and their enzymes are active at very high range of temperatures up to 60 to 70 degree Celsius which is an added merit to the process as the thermophilic enzymes readily convert the lignocellulose to biofuels without the conversion to pentose saccharides and are resistant to the fuels which they accumulate There is no requirement for sparging sterile oxygen because the thermophiles are anaerobic Normally commercially biofuels mainly ethanol are produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae here thermophiles or metabolically engineering and expressing the gene of interest into the heterologous host Various Biofuels produced There could be many biofuels produced by the use of extremophiles which includes bioethanol bio butanol bio hydrogen biogas biodiesel All these biofuels can be obtained by the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock The products yield obtained by this process may be low but by metabolic engineering and recombinant DNA modified strains of heterologous host such as modified strains of Escherichia coli can be used to increase the yield considerably 



The metabolically engineered thermophiles and heterologous strains will definitely increase the yield and also the biological pathways responsible for byproducts accumulation can be modified and can be reduced Feasible innovative ideas There can be implementation of small scale bioreactors in the laboratory and the feedstock are fed into the reactor and are fermented anaerobically by the thermophiles and the resultant product may be bio hydrogen biogas which can be transported through pipes to the biosafety cabinet and the fuel produced as a product can be used to light the flame in the cabinet Merits of using thermophiles 1 Fast growth rates of the thermophiles and higher metabolic rate of conversion of biomass wastes to biofuels 2 The thermophilic enzymes are highly stable and flexible at high temperatures 3 The thermophilic anaerobes are resistant to high pH and organic solvents and the biofuels that are accumulated 4 Increased solubility of substrates and activity of enzymes 5 Viscosity of the fermentation broth decreases with the increase in the temperature 6 Possess unique thermophilic enzymes like lignolytic cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic xylanases systems produce enzymes to degrade various polymeric precursors like cellulose and hemicellulose 7 Facilitate faster in situ product recovery 8 Minimum risk of contaminations because of very high temperatures from diverse microorganisms and other thermophiles 9 Cost effective as no pretreatment of feedstock required and no sterile oxygen sparger required 10 Isolation of thermophiles is easier Some potential pitfalls 1 Accumulation of byproducts 2 Low product yield Trouble shooting The accumulation of byproducts can be overcome by the recombinant genetically modified strains of microorganisms into host bacteria and also inhibiting or blocking the biological pathways responsible for byproduct production and enhancing the product yield Value added byproducts There are many varieties of value added products form extremophiles such as exopolysaccharides polyhydroxyalkanoate polyhydroxybutyrate inclusion bodies like lipoproteins accumulation in cells etc Applications Exopolysaccharide food thickening agent Polyhydroxyalkanoate and polyhydroxybutyrate biopolymer which is widely used is the plastic industries


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