Essay Example on Shape Memory Alloy And Morphing As advancement Continues

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Shape Memory Alloy And Morphing As advancement continues in the materials being used for manufacturing of aircraft with that came a new practice morphing Morphing is where a material in our case undergoes a uniform transformation into a new shape Now morphing could be the only possibility if you have a material that can withstand undergoing transformation and hold another shape without losing its endurance These types of material are known as a shape memory alloy SMA Now to be a shape memory alloy that material should be flexible enough to change its shape when demanded and withhold its strength and perform at excess temperatures Also to have a phase change of these materials they would be experiencing the thermal or automated action Shape memory alloys are bound to have some sort of resilience in them Although shape memory alloy has been in existence for many years yet they haven't been used in any mainstream environment for that reason there aren't many shape memory alloys The main reason being no one has completely explored the elasticity of materials Nonetheless there are some studies where they conducted studies of materials elasticity 



The most common alloys used in these applications are Cu Al Ni and Ti A study done by International company Rilem conducted an experiment in testing the materials where mechanical stress is present to materials and through a stress and strain curve and along with this they also another factor of different temperatures and then they study the material characteristics below is the result of their experiment Figure 1 Rilem Experiment Results In a similar sense a study at Texas A M University was conducted where they installed shape memory alloy tubes in the wing where the purpose of this was to initiate spanwise wing twisting which is to reduce the drag during taking off So by adding a slight twist to the wing would reduce the angle of attack through the span of the wing hence reducing drag Although the result of this study was not as much as strong enough for a full scale wing Below are pictures of the SMA torque tube in a wing Figure 2 Texas A M University Study Another challenge for this shape memory alloy is the rigidity of the materials after undergoing transformations This is where a laser additive manufacturing LAM of shape memory alloy conducted by an Institute in Indore India Their study shows that composite of Ni and Ti significantly improves the phase changing transformation compared to the other materials like Cu On the other hand the manufacturing cost of this composite is quite expensive so the next step in this is to find a viable solution for manufacturing Another challenge is the type of material being used for morphing 



When a morphing takes place the material can go through an excessive amount of stress which in some cases can rupture the material A study at Pennsylvania State University found that a suitable material for this kind of application is to be made of composite or aluminum Which shows that for morphing a material doesn't have to be flexible Another study introduced by Gandhi Farhan says airfoil composed of a cellular core and stiff face sheets the skin s flexural stiffness must not be too low in order to keep a good aerodynamic shape in Figure 3 we can clearly see that by just having a cellular core can make the structure flexible to some extent In this same study they found out that a honeycomb cellular structure and specifically honeycomb which has positive angles proved to be a much stronger structure that can go through heavy loads and withstand up to ten times greater strains compared to a structure without any cellular structure In addition to having a honeycomb cellular structure rigidity the same results were found regardless of the thickness of the material being used and having this kind cellular structure also was viable for the purpose that it is being used for since it would reduce strain at some stages Figure 3 Ghandi Cellular Core Structure In contrast there are companies like Lockheed Martin already have aircraft that have morphing structures but the difference is that their structure moves in all but the idea here is to have a fixed structure to extend or change its shape by flexing But just like shape memory alloys structures that are flexible are expensive to manufacture and there aren t also many options in terms of materials In addition controlling these types of materials can be also a challenge itself As you can see the idea of having materials that are flexible and can change its shape has many advantages to it but for now first of all there aren't many materials viable enough for this type of application Secondly manufacturing shape memory alloy is no easy task and it also not a low cost process

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