Essay Example on Since World War II the continuous rise in refugee Numbers









Since World War II the continuous rise in refugee numbers in each passing decade continues to be a major challenge to the United Nations UN Whenever there is displacement or a humanitarian catastrophe the UN is on the ground providing relief support and assistance Several aid agencies under the umbrella of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR are responsible for humanitarian assistance and protection of refugees Salmio 2009 Sivolobova 2012 Subsequent eruption of armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes Region has resulted in the flight of millions of people in search of safety with some of them ending in refugee camps Towards the end of the World War II refugee camps became standardized form of assisting displaced people Salmio 2009 Sivolobova 2012 A refugee camp is defined by UNHCR 2016 as a temporary accommodation for people who have been forced to flee their homes to provide immediate protection and safety for the world s most vulnerable people UNHCR reports that there are 2 6 million people living in camps worldwide According to UNHCR facts and figures by end of 2016 there were 65 6 million people forcibly displaced worldwide from their homes due to conflict violence or persecution out of this 22 5 million are refugees and 30 of them are hosted in Africa this gives an average of 28 300 people displaced worldwide on daily basis UNHCR affirms that when people become refugees they are likely to remain refugee for several years 

Majority remain displaced for nearly two decades and this puts their lives in limbo Dadaab refugee camp has a population of 234 346 registered refugees and asylum seekers as at the beginning of 2018 Dadaab refugee camp consists of four separate camps with the first camps established in 1991 with refugees fleeing the civil war in Somalia crossed the border into Kenya The second large influx occurred in 2011 where 130 000 refugees arrived from fleeing drought and famine in southern Somalia The old camps resemble naturally grown towns and have developed into commercial hubs connecting North eastern and Southern regions of Kenya and Somalia respectively Refugee crisis is compounded by the dwindling humanitarian aid Ikanda 2008 Christopher P et al 2017 asserts that humanitarian aid is funded by donations from individuals corporations governments and other organizations However lately people no longer give to charities like they have in the past Donor fatigue is something that has been on the rise in the recent years for a variety of reasons The major cause of donor fatigue is simply budget exhaustion Finally the predicament of refugees who have lived outside their country for more than five years is even worse Donors are increasingly reluctant to shoulder the burden of feeding these long term or protracted refugees Lack of humanitarian funds for whatever reason has dire consequences for the escalating refugee crisis 1 1 2 Refugee s Entrepreneurship A business model is defined as the rationale behind the ability of an organization to create deliver and capture values in an economic social cultural or other context Abraham 2012 argues that the process of business model construction is part of business strategy In literature business models are considered essential aspects of successful businesses as their main purpose is to differentiate a particular company from others and to provide it with an advantage over its rivalry Johnson et al 2008 Teece 2010

The business model concept emerged in the context of e business and many of the early definitions are composed in this context Timmers 1998 Afuah Tucci 2001 Amit Zott 2001 Since then the concept has been applied in various industries ranging from airlines to music recording Chesbrough 2010 Morris et al 2005 and definitions have been presented from perspectives such as strategy technology and entrepreneurship Chesbrough Rosenbloom 2002 Morris et al 2005 Shafer et al 2005 Development of long term refugees self reliance is widely advocated by academics and practitioners discouraging refugee programmes that are only limited to relief aid rather than sustainable development Various initiatives have been championed encouraging NGOs to move beyond the care and maintenance approach of dependent on international assistance for protection food water shelter medical education and other human needs 2003 UNHCR 2005 Sivolobova 2012 Many humanitarian aid agencies have sought to review their policies in an attempt to create an effective transition between emergency humanitarian aid and longer term development Konyndyk 2005 UNHCR 2005 2011 Small scale business is considered the best avenue in the drive towards the economic self reliance of refugees Income generating projects are meant to provide sustainable livelihoods instil new survival skills in refugees permit them to enjoy a limited degree of financial autonomy and introduce money into a poorly monetized environment

Refugees initially are fully dependent on aid from the international community Since many refugees settle in camps for years humanitarian aid is not sufficient to address their basic needs so refugees are forced to coin other ways to self sufficiency Werker 2007 Since many outsiders view camps as temporary refugee settlements that wholesomely depend on foreign aid they fail to see how refugee camps emerge as urban environments that are full of commercial structures and generate their own economies The main major reason for economic empowerment move in refugee camps is because foreign aid is not sufficient to address all their needs Brees 2008 argues that Burmese refugees who live in Thailand receive food rations that meet international standards but there is no provision of fresh fruit vegetables meat or non food items that they need hence have to look for alternative source In addition a study by Meludu 2009 about refugees in Nigeria found that the humanitarian efforts supporting Nigerian refugee camps is often not enough to sustain them while in the camp for the period they are to stay

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