Essay Example on State the primary function of the endocrine system in the human Body









State the primary function of the endocrine system in the human body The endocrine system contains endocrine glands that are responsible for producing and secreting hormones to maintain homeostasis and regulate growth metabolism and sexual development 2 Explain the role each of the following plays in the endocrine system NO Definitions i Hormones Hormones main role is to be a messenger sent through the bloodstream to different organs tissues or cells to control the functions our bodies complete in everyday life ii Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is extremely important in that it is responsible for sending signals to the pituitary gland This includes the control of body temperature hunger thirst emotional feedback and the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones as well as the two posterior pituitary hormones iii Anterior pituitary The role of the anterior pituitary is to release six main hormones FSH LH ACTH TSH Prolactin and GH These hormones play huge roles in sexual function growth stress reactions homeostasis breastfeeding and aging iv Posterior Pituitary 

The role of the posterior pituitary is to release two hormones called ADH and Oxytocin ADH is responsible for water retention where Oxytocin is responsible for engaging uterine contractions before childbirth Do Number 3 on Separate Sheet 3 Compile a table showing components of the endocrine system location secretion s and principal function s of each organ gland Include hypothalamus anterior lobe of pituitary gland posterior lobe of pituitary gland pineal gland thymus gland follicular cells of thyroid gland C cells calcitonin or parafollicular cells of thyroid gland parathyroid glands adrenal medulla adrenal cortex alpha cells of pancreatic islet beta cells of pancreatic islet delta cells of pancreatic islet ovaries and testes 4Explain type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is hereditary and is the least common form of diabetes only affecting about 5 10 of diabetics A person born with type 1 DM may not show symptoms until later on in life If the person contracts a specific virus the body creates antibodies that in turn destroy beta cells Once most of these beta cells are destroyed the insulin levels drop resulting in hyperglycemia and at this point the diabetes is usually diagnosed Most people with type 1 are diagnosed before 30 years old This form of diabetes is regulated with insulin shots and meal regulation 

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the most common form of diabetes affecting between 90 95 of diabetics Type 2 DM can also be hereditary and passed down family generations but additionally can be contracted due to obesity and old age However type 2 is not due to the lack of insulin but rather the body resisting it Usually insulin levels are actually normal or high Obesity can cause this because the fat cells begin to replace the muscle Muscle aids in glucose absorption and once the muscle dwindles away the person is no longer able to balance their glucose levels Type 2 DM is most common after age 40 but has been popping up in the lives of younger people due to the rising numbers of youth obesity This form of diabetes is usually easily managed with diet and exercise and if needed some medications 5 List all Anterior Pituitary Hormones and Posterior Pituitary Hormones Anterior Pituitary 1 Follicle stimulating hormone FSH 2 Luteinizing hormone LH 3 Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH 4

Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH 5 Prolactin PRL 6 Growth Hormone GH Posterior Pituitary 1 Antidiuretic hormone ADH 2 Oxytocin OT 6 Describe medical problems associated with endocrine disorders of the Thyroid gland Hypothyroidism is a well known disorder of the thyroid resulting from low amounts of TH being released This can cause inflammation water retention dry skin fatigue aches depression and even menstrual issues Hyperthyroidism is the opposite where excess amounts of TH are released This can cause anxiety fast heart rate sweating tremors fatigue and weight loss An endemic goiter is a visible swelling in the neck area caused from the lack of iodine The low amount of iodine causes TH to cease and TSH secretion to increase This in turn results in the build up of thyroglobulin in the thyroid gland resulting in a goiter Adrenal gland Cushing syndrome is an example of an adrenal gland disorder caused by excess amounts of cortisol being secreted 

This accounts for carbs and protein having a difficult time being metabolized which induces hyperglycemia hypertension weakness in the muscles and edema Some obvious signs of Cushing syndrome are the buffalo hump behind the neck or the moon face appearance Adrenogenital syndrome is another disorder of the adrenal gland For newborns this can be seen as females being declared males due to genitalia looking more like a penis In younger children it causes enlarged penis in males and enlarged clitoris in females In adult women it can cause increased body hair and a lower voice 7 What is acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder of the pituitary gland when the growth hormone is hypersecreted causing bones and tissues within the body to thicken It especially affects the hands feet and face and is clearly visible 8 Explain feedback Negative and Positive control of the pituitary gland by target organs While the pituitary gland is secreting hormones controlled by the hypothalamus this is also being regulated by the target organs usually via negative feedback Through the hormone secretion process the target organs will inhibit the release of hormone when enough has been secreted and will not inhibit when more is needed This allows the amount of hormone to fluctuate but keeps it in homeostasis around a set point of normalcy Positive feedback isn't used as frequently but is non inhibitory feedback An example oxytocin being released constantly to produce contractions and is only halted once the baby has been born

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