Essay Example on Term Paper Political economy of the Communication









Political Economy of Media MED 411 Term Paper Political economy of the communication is about nature relations between media and communication systems with social structure That includes ownership support structures government policies that affect media and media content Robert McChesney When Industrial Revolution age came world had a new perspective for living With that new perspectives emerge in terms of economy and politics This leads us to two important perspective occurred with Karl Marx and Adam Smith Adam Smith approach was suggesting a free market with limited government limitations This is also known as liberal economy Karl Marx took that idea and add his thoughts to make a new perspective for new era Thus lead us to capitalism and new terms for understanding the concept like commodity and surplus value Commodity basically a thing has value to others can sell and trade and surplus value is a value that made by worker s labour and goes to the owner of the workers the capital according to Marx These perspectives develop in 18th and 19th century As time passed Marx became more and more important for political economy of communication and social studies Between 1968 and 1977 there were 1537 articles about Marx and Marxism Articles increased in 1978 1987 We can tell that 1988 2007 has the most articles Fuchs 2014 

According to Fuchs this can explain with multiple reasons like the rise of the postmodernism in social science Conducting Marxist studies was not conducive for an academic career or academic reputation in a climate of conservative backlash and commodification of academia Fuchs 2014 With the help of the political economy PE ideology we can try to understand how other classes sections relevant with power and institutions For communication studies PE is focusing on the economic power power relations it is not examine how audiences affected It can be explaining background of the communication sector Help of the digitalizing is helping to make a connected global environment So that the distance between two countries are getting closer with technology This facility makes an opportunity to some global wised companies to reach more people A research take place in 2009 show the core of communication with the help of this research we know what companies in which sector or which one isn t According to table multinational multimedia companies i e Bertelsmann CBS Comcast Disney News Corp Time Warner and Viacom internet content companies i e Google Apple News Corp Comcast and Microsoft School 2011 According to Marx commodities can appear in a wide range Can be physical can be cultural A simple apple can be a commodity for its market value

As we look in cultural pay for a movie ticket to see the movie And in digital age humans audiences can be a commodity like a movie ticket As it is definition commodity a material substance which can be bought or sold In 1977 Dallas Smythe come with a concept or term called audience labour For his point of view he claimed when you started watching TV show or read newspaper is audience labour But this point of view has errors We can see that after Smythe other political economy of communication thinkers came with different point of views but in their core audience labour was in there Nixon Although when using and consuming cultural products as an audience you help newspaper or TV channel to make money With the technological developments in past few years surveillance became a high value for companies Surveillance is come up with digital media Everyone who used a internet or a app leave a footprint and the help of the new technologies it will make a cyber identity What this person like what is gender Where do this person live 

This question can be answered with a little research But nowadays if we want to use a app or a social platform we must agree with their agreement terms So that we allow them to follow us see what we looking at make little questionnaires and gain a bonus or a cyber coin We think we gain a bonus but companies gain more information about us In a way we help them to gather information about us This information flow makes a junk in cyber platform and called big data This means little bit information turn into a massive volume and turning into a global struggle Technology is helping companies to make profit over audience Sector by sector this method can change For web pages most important thing to achievement is to make a regular web traffic to their site Regulated action give guarantee to the advertisers and investors This means they can use this traffic information to companies to make profits In that case the people who access the web page regularly they become commodified

Thus they are the criterion to earn money for the site As an example Google has bought YouTube Site is for watching videos but videos making by users and again users watch other user s videos via YouTube As Fuchs points put the users who upload or watch videos on YouTube constitute an audience commodity that is sold to advertisers Labor in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet And Brice Nixon had a critique to sentence Fuchs has missed the fact that uploading and watching videos on YouTube are two different kinds of productive labour from the perspective of YouTube as a digital communicative capitalist Users who watch videos on YouTube are the objects of advertiser attention because it is their work of watching that advertisers want to direct toward watching advertisements Users who upload videos to YouTube are doing the work of creating user generated content Those users and that work are not sold to advertisers Nixon

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