The development of mind is called cognitive development it means that a part of brain is used for recognising reasoning knowing and understanding It may also involve what a person knows and the ability to understand reason and solve problems and also the person s memory concentration level attention level perception imagination and creativity A child's cognitive development can be promoted by engaging them in quality interactions on everyday basis like talking and naming commonly used objects by letting them to explore new toys reading stories and books singing and most importantly answering the why questions all time Stages of cognitive development from birth to seven years There are four stages of cognitive development identified by Jean Piaget Piaget was one of the most popular and influential child psychologists of all time and had a great influence on professional practice in childcare His research simply interested in how children react to the environment but his observations contradict current thinking and the influential theory of cognitive development The four stages of cognitive development are as follows Sensorimotor stage Ages from birth to about 2 years During this stage infants learn through sensory experiences for example they often put toys objects in their mouth Pre operational stage Ages from 2 to 7 years During this stage children develop memory and imagination
Concrete operational stage Ages from 7 to 11 years During this stage children become more aware of external events Formal operational stage Ages from 11 to 16 years During this stage children use logic to solve problems takes a look at the world around them and can plan for the future The above sensory and pre operational stages covers the ages of from birth to seven years and the development in this ages is as shown below New born A newborn baby can feel pain can even turn to sounds and also turns to the smell of the breast The baby can see the objects that are eight to 12 inches away from them Is sensitive to sounds close by Startles to loud noises by arching back kicking legs and flailing arms One to four months By one month babies start to smile and answer to smiles Watches objects and faces briefly and follow moving objects with eyes They respond to loud noises by leaning back kicking his legs and weaving arms By two they cry or fusses if bored Follows moving objects such as rattles or toys with eyes Recognises familiar people at a distance By the third month a child shows more interest in playthings and shows a variety of vocalisations such as crying cooking sounds and chuckles Recognises breast or bottle Follows movement by turning head Cries loudly when showing an emotional need Four to six months in this period a child watches moving objects by moving eyes from side to side Watches faces and looks at mothers face while feeding They try to reach for toys that are out of reach and try to put it in the mouth They use their hands and mouth to explore the world
They can transfer objects from one hand to the other Seven to nine months by nine months a child realises his daily routines and likes to copy speech and gestures They use thumb and index fingers to pick up the things They identify familiar pictures and play alone for more period of time and enjoy making noises by banging toys Watches an object as it falls and looks for the objects when we try to hide Ten to twelve months they start exploring things by banging shaking or throwing They begin to use common objects like brush cup etc and can follow simple directions like pick up your toy They try putting objects in and out of a container and they try to copy others around them a lot Eighteen to two years by eighteen months a child enjoys stories books and singing They start scribbling with crayons or pencils and they can turn pages of a book They can follow one step directions without any gestures By two years a child is eager to learn and becomes an active explorer of his own surroundings They might show strong emotions in temper tantrums or bursting into tears Wishes to share songs conversations and finger rhymes more Builds a tower of five or more blocks and begins to sort shapes and colours They can follow two step directions and can complete sentences and rhymes Three years Does puzzles with three or four pieces and can match and sort objects by shape and colour Retains and say songs and nursery rhymes Realises the general idea of one and lots They can count by memory up to ten Draws or copies a circle with crayon or pencil Screws and unscrews jar lids and turns door handles Four years by age four a child is quite efficient and has the knowledge of doing things well Memory skills are developed and can able to recall special events of past Takes joy in counting up numbers up to twenty They copy simple shapes and can understand the concept of same and different Five years by age five they can recognise their own printed name and may be able to write name They can print some letters and numbers and can also understand the concept of time Can make a choice for a special sport or craft activity Six years starts to general ideas of quality length measurement distance area time volume capacity and weight Starts to behave in a much co ordinated way and can hold his purpose of thinking in a particular way Engages in fantasy play Seven years children this age are capable of being polite and may be very outgoing Child can likely learn to read and do simple math computations
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