Facilities______________________________________________________ F Concept of Operations___________________________________________ G Mass power volume____________________________________________ 7 Analysis_________________________________________________________ 8 Project Management_______________________________________________ 9 Final Statement___________________________________________________ 10 References_________________________________________________________ Nomenclature Abbreviation Definition LEO Low Earth Orbit MEO Medium Earth Orbit GEO geosynchronous orbit 1 Introduction 1 738 is the number of active satellites that is orbiting Low Earth Orbit The cost of production of each satellite may vary from 200 million to 500 million dollars
A cascading Kessler syndrome becomes more likely as satellites in orbit increase in number 2 Consequently the future sustainability of space activities is in imminent danger The question is not if the Kessler syndrome is going to happen the right question is when is this going to happen Furthermore it is a matter of time that the space debris mitigation guidelines of the committee of the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space become legally binding among the international community Therefore is crucial during the design phase to any satellite developer to include the add on Elektra on its payloads to guarantee compliance with the UN space debris mitigation guidelines 2 Background National space agencies and international forums such as the Inter Agency Debris Coordination Committee have acknowledged the necessity for prompt action regarding the space debris problem In fact the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs have been working since 1994 in the development of space debris mitigation guidelines Historically the primary sources of space debris in Earth orbits are
1 Accidental and intentional break ups which produce long lived debris 2 Debris released intentionally during the operation of launch vehicle orbital stages and spacecraft Space debris mitigation measures can be divided into two broad categories Mitigation of harmful space debris in the near term and those that limit their generation over the longer term 3 Industry stakeholders academia spacefaring nations are actively working in ideas and new concepts to develop an effective piece of technology that could mitigate the generation of more space debris In fact concepts of capturing and removal methods it is being researched For example A Capturing methods include Tentacles capturing Single arm capturing Multiple arm capturing Mechanical effector Net capturing Tether gripper mechanism Harpoon mechanism B Removal methods include Drag augmentation system FOAM drag Inflated method Fiber based method C Electrodynamic tethered D Laser system E ESA Robotic Geostationary Orbit Restorer F Removal of Orbital Clutter university Colorado G Elektra 3 References 1 NASA Orbital Debris and Human Spacecraft Retrieve from https www nasa gov mission_pages station news orbital_debris html Accessed January 21 2018 2 Donald J Kessler and Burton G Cour Palais 1978 Collision Frequency of Artificial Satellites The Creation of a Debris Belt Journal of Geophysical Research 83 2637 2646 3 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
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