Essay Example on The educational system can often be reviewed from two different Perspectives








The educational system can often be reviewed from two different perspectives regarding how it affects the educational system The two perspectives include the externalists views which focuses on educability and how pupils perform in examinations for examples IQ tests The externalist views look specifically at cultural deprivation and social differences in schools The other perspective is the internalist views which focuses on how the system causes differentiation through organisation and stereotypical roles and material deprivation These internalist views include poor housing diet and financial support Working-class children from a working-class background that attend a state school with other fellow working-class children tend to experience economic hardships more than any other class this is because of internalist views of material deprivation which is closely linked to the underachievement of working-class pupils in school It is seen that a child's attainment is often linked to child deprivation One type of deprivation found by the education system is the lack of capital combined with the lack of skills and attitude which all contributes to the child's academic achievement

Often children from a working class background are likely not to have access to additional educational resources which other classes would have access to It is known that the educational system eliminates the working class pupils for their lack of resources and their ability to compete with pupils from the middle class backgrounds However it is evident that children from different classes don't mix and come across one another because frequently they are within different educational systems for example in private or in public schools A factor which affects the educational achievement of the working class is there different social groups and peers Working class children have parents which have very little interest in their successes and their studies However Douglas found that the middle class parents have more interest in their academic studies Douglas 1964 Douglas identified that the amount of interest shown by the parents is an important factor in a child's education also the attitudes can become apparent to teachers which could favouritism between the different classes Paul Willis who was a professor at Keele Management School and Professor of Sociology at Princeton University USA Published Learning to Labor How working class kids get working class jobs 1977 Paul Willis studied a group of working class boys to identify any observations within their learning environment and discovering the answer to why working class kids get working class jobs Willis 1977

During Willis observations he identified that the males had a negative attitude towards any academic work and showed traits of informative attitudes These working class boys wouldn t go on to study at any higher level other than school that s if they finished school They would never have any motivation to succeed any higher and often they would go straight from school into working class jobs similar to their parents being paid very small amounts Willis stated that no matter how hard they tried they would still remain far less successful than middle class students Willis 1977 This suggests that working class boys from the start of the schooling age mentally prepare themselves to go into the same jobs as their parents and to follow the exact same paths This is evident through their attitudes which were identified from Willis that their behaviour has massive impacts on how they perform within the education system but also how they accept the low skilled labour jobs and the low paid jobs straight from the day they enter the schooling environment It is also identified that children from a working class background have a restricted speech code which was researched by Basil Bernstein who focused on the linguistic skills of the different class Bernstein suggested that class difference in speech patterns were related to the educational achievement 

He focused on speech codes and the systemic differences in the use of language and none verbal skills Bernstein claimed that the working class pupils use a restricted speech codes as often their sentences are not finished and there is very limited advanced English in sentences Bernstein refers to it as a restricted vocabulary just to unfinished sentences and a type of verbal shorthand Bernstein 1973 Restricted speech codes tend to operate in terms of particularistic meanings and as such are tied to specific contexts According to Bernstein this type of speech code is primarily used by the working class Bernstein 1971 The implications of a restricted speech code for working-class pupils is that often school surroundings and teacher s communication using an elaborate speech code Which would leave the working class pupils at a disadvantage in comparison to other middle or upper class pupils in the same surrounding Speech codes have fundamental implications for educational experiences meaning that the working class pupils could be missing out by not understanding in as much detail as those pupils within an elaborate speech code Children with elaborated codes are usually more able to cope with demands of formal education 

As the upper-class pupils are more likely to socialize and talk differently in groups and in lessons However it is evident that a restricted speech code and an elaborate speech code both have different views aspirations and educational performances based on their social class Bernstein stated that the restrictive speech code would lead to jobs which have more of manual input and are generally at the lower end of the pay scales Elaborated speech code gives a person greater access to careers requiring greater verbal dexterity and almost certainly a higher pay scale combined with career progression Bernstein 1971 However Bernstein did suggest that the education system in the UK uses elaborated speech patterns during lessons and this immediately places the working class pupils at an immediate disadvantage by making the pupils feel under pressure and threatened by the intimidating situations which they were left in

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