# Essay Example on The K8004 circuit Pulse width modulation PWM is a Technique

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INTRODUCTION The K8004 circuit Pulse width modulation PWM is a technique for obtaining analogue results in digital senses The control is advanced with a square wave and the flag wavers amongst enactment and deactivation ON OFF This wave is hello there and low wave as is known For instance in the event that we have a voltage wellspring of five volts and make a wave from it through the microcontrollers for instance this wave may influence the yield voltage to rate under 5 volts or 4 volts or 3 Or 2 4 or as we need In this mode ON OFF which reenacts voltages between the two situations when they are all in ON condition by 5 volts and when in OFF mode by zero change from the time the flag takes in ON and conversely The time it takes in an OFF condition The time invested in the ON energy is called pulse width Through these concepts and report in a brief summary of the subject mentioned above which I will explain more and explained in detail during several paragraphs and I will mention some characteristics of this circuit and its uses and way of work through illustrations showing the content and in the latter will mention the results of the circuit test and the shape of the graph

LITERATURE REVIEW The PWM can control both dynamic power and response control Along these lines this kind of rate can be utilized to rectify PF Current waveforms can likewise be generally wrapped in relatively sinusoidal diminishing consonant defilement to supply control supply tubes and killing switches ahead of time shape ordinarily sinusoidal voltage or current wave At that point the rotational speed of a DC engine N is relative to the back emf Vb of the motor divided by the magnetic flux which for a permanent magnet is a constant time an electromechanical steady contingent on the idea of the armatures windings Ke giving us the equation of N V Ke ϕ So the control the stream of current through the engine Well many individuals endeavor to control the speed of a DC engine utilizing an expansive variable resistor Rheostat in arrangement with the engine as shown

While this may work as it does with Scalextric opening auto dashing it creates a considerable measure of warmth and squandered power in the protection One basic and simple approach to control the speed of an engine is to direct the measure of voltage across its terminals and this can be achieved using Pulse Width Modulation or PWM As its name suggests pulse width modulation speed control works by driving the motor with a series of ON-OFF pulses and varying the duty cycle the division of time that the yield voltage is ON contrasted with when it is OFF of the beats while keeping the recurrence steady In addition there are several examples in which this technique is used You can control the intensity of LED lighting by adjusting the working cycle value If we have RGB LED colors are red green blue we can control the measure of the three colors in a combination

Colors by packaging each of them to shifting degrees In the event that all hues are equivalent the outcome is a white light with uneven splendor Blending the blue with the green evenly gives a blue color to the teal Let us take a more complex example attempt to influence the redwork to cycle 100 green half and blue 0 and the subsequent shading will be orange It is also conceivable to utilize the beat width acclimation to control the edge of a servomotor associated with a mechanical body, for example, the robot arm The servo drives have a pivot that can be turned to a particular position utilizing its control line Some servo motors can pivot in the run-up to 180 degrees

METHODOLOGY In this part we must clarify the stages and steps of the work we have done in the work of the project and there are several stages and steps for this work and therefore we have encountered some problems during the work and have been skipped some of them First we drew the circuit in the program of Multisim and this was explained the parts of the circuit from the connections and resistors and capacitors and power supplies and integrated circuit Here is our first problem that we did not find this piece in the program IC and cannot run the circuit in the program without this piece because it is one of the most important parts Circuit because it translates the electrical signals and converted to waves and therefore is one of the most important parts and thus did not complete the circuit and could not simulate the circuit and run in the program

The second step is that we have made a real circuit by connecting the whole circuit and then started to weld it by connecting the parts of the circuit and here we have the problem of time which is that the welding needs a great time and effort because the work in the circuit needs a great accuracy in the work and therefore we needed a great time The last step is to test the circuit work and see the results required from the test circuit work and thus the results were calculated and the success of the circuit RESULTS AND ANALYSIS In the chart below green lines represent the normal time This period reflects PWM frequency The Arduino PWM frequency is approximately 500 Hz between each green line representing two milliseconds Through what we see in these images that the shapes are visible to change according to the values given and through the images indicates that an installation in which the pulse and therefore we can control it as shown in the pictures change Duty Cycle It must be compared with the results of the compiler but we cannot complete the circuit

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