The Object Oriented Programming OOP approach is most commonly used approach nowadays OOP is being used for designing large and complex applications Before OOP other programming approaches existed but had drawbacks These programming approaches have been passing through revolutionary phases as technology advances Initially for designing small and simple programs the machine language was used Next came the Assembly Language which was used for designing larger programs In 1960s came the Procedural Programming Approach which enabled us to write larger and hundred lines of code Then in 1970 a new programming approach called Structured Programming Approach was developed for designing medium sized programs In 1980 s the size of programs kept increasing so a new approach known as OOP was invented The OOP approach came into existence to remove the drawback of conventional approaches The basic principle of the OOP approach is to combine both data and functions so that both can operate into a single unit called object Object Oriented Programming is a concept that was created to overcome the problems that were found with using structured programming techniques While structured programming uses an approach which is top down OOP uses an approach which is bottom up
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Traditionally programming has placed an emphasis on logic and actions while OOP emphasis on objects and information The basis for OOP started in the early 1960s A breakthrough involving instances and objects was achieved at MIT with the PDP 1 and the first object language was Simula 67 It was designed for creating simulations and was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole Johan Dahl in Norway Simula introduced the notion of classes and instances of objects as part of an explicit programming paradigm The term Object Oriented Programming was first used by Xerox PARC in their Smalltalk programming language The term was used to represent the pervasive use of objects and messages as the basis for computation The Smalltalk team was inspired by the Simula 67 project but they designed Smalltalk so that it would be dynamic Smalltalk was also the first programming language to introduce the inheritance concept It is this feature that allowed Smalltalk to surpass both Simula 67 and the analog programming systems While these systems were advanced for their time they did not use the inheritance concept Simula 67 was a groundbreaking system that has inspired many other programming languages and some of these include Pascal and Lisp Experimentation with various extensions to Lisp such as LOOPS eventually led to the Common Lisp Object System which integrates functional programming and object oriented programming and allows extension via a Meta object protocol By the 1980s Object Oriented Programming had become prominent and the primary factor was due to Bjorn Stroustrup integrating object oriented programming into the C language The resulting language was called C and it became the first object oriented language to be widely used commercially OOP was also important for the development of Graphical user interfaces The Cocoa structure that exists within Mac OS X is a good example of a dynamic GUI that works with an OOP language This paradigm of programming has also played an important role in the development of event driven programming Originally OOP was merely the subject of research However powerful system architectures were built based on it and were compatible with operating systems and central processing units
Many people believe that object oriented programming was derived from the concept of an object that is commonly associated with grammar Instead of taking an approach which is subject oriented researchers decided to take an approach which is object oriented Many experts choose to refer to OOP as a paradigm instead of a method of programming The reason for this is because OOP can change the way developers view software and is the mainstay for other programming languages Terms that are important in OOP are class object inheritance encapsulation and abstraction With OOP a problem will be broken down into several units These units are called objects Encapsulation of data structures and methods means that only the methods associated with the object can access the internal data structures An object is a packaged item of information including the processes which manipulate it The objects in OOP are reusable components which may often be used in different applications In OOP environments object libraries may be available for the programmer to build into solutions Generic objects representing classes can also be defined and objects representing subclasses can inherit the data structures and methods from the broader classes to which they belong An instance of a class is represented by instantiating the data structure to the appropriate values OOP is a paradigm that has created a revolution within the field of computer programming It is likely that OOP will continue to evolve in the future Although OOP may be the subject of debate within the programming community as critics point out problems with the structure the popularity of implementing object orientated approach in programming languages such as Java and C demonstrate that it is a paradigm that is here to stay
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