Essay Example on The Ottoman Empire attempt to reform Itself









The Ottoman Empire attempt to reform itself between 1839 and 1914 because the Empire sought to copy European legal and military institutions and the secular values from liberalism They saw the success of Europe and wanted to confirm and copy their success The reforms implemented brought about the freedom of the economy the end of high taxes on the population fought corruption and extended religious tolerance The success of the reforms as a whole is hard to judge because they were more helpful in some regions rather than others For some citizens these reforms greatly improved their way of life but for others the changes seemed far too radical to be okay with It was so difficult to unify Italy because Italy had been divided since the Renaissance and different parts of the country were favored by different nations Austria controlled Venetia and the Papal state was supported by France the Italian people also were spiteful of the idea of unification adding extra difficulties 

The groups in Italy that wanted unification were Liberals and Nationalists distinctly a few specific people include Giuseppe Mazzini Guiseppe Garibaldi Count Camillo Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel Cavour succeeded in his efforts because he was excellent with his words was talented with military organization and proved that a unified Italy would be economically beneficial for allies Garibaldi was successful in the military side of things He used guerilla warfare and the alliance of troops from Piedmont to break down barriers and help push back opposing armies He too was also a motivational speaker and was able to convince Italians to act together for the common good Bismarck unified Germany by opposing parliamentary government but favored a strong constitutional monarchy After becoming prime minister he attacked the liberals in Prussia he then ignored them so that he could unify germany The main reason to unify Germany was power Bismarck wanted to become the new Napoleon of Europe and to do that he needed one big country not small states fighting with each other Earlier attempts at unifying Germany had failed because the different political groups could not agree on how to try and unify the country 

There was no clear path at how to unify the country and everyone was fighting with each other so before Bismarck's time the individual states refused to compromise German unification affected the rest of Europe because it created a new state that was stronger than Prussia alone The unification also weakened Habsburg power and after the unification of Germany conservative political ideas now controlled one of Europe's strongest nations The Third Republic in France was preceded by France's defeat in the Franco Prussian war The people of France had lost faith in their emperor and the mostly conservative National Assembly could no longer stay together due to tensions between loyalties in dynastic houses The count of Chambord also refused to become king so without any conservative succession the conservatives in the republic collapsed The objectives of the Paris Commune were the separation of Church and state military pensions for families of deceased French militiamen equal wages and legal status for women and an end to all night work schedules Austria shared with other eastern European empires the problem of the ethnically diverse land they riles

A higher diversity of people leads to a more difficult time in ruling and keeping everyone happy a problem many countries were experiencing Many of these issues went unsolved and unresolved because it was not a popular thing to give up their unique customs and traditions to conform to everyone else The Habsburgs agree to the Compromise of 1867 because they wanted to become a stronger and more reliable nation state They agreed to combine the Austrian and Habsburg lands with the Hungarian lands to create a single dual monarchy The dual monarchy was unique at the time and was generally seen as a success through a radical movement Alexander ll instituted political reforms that restructured local government education judicial system military and expression The local government needed something to replace landlords that once ruled elementary schools were built around the country the criminal law system was redone all class conscription and technological improvements were made in the military fields and the expression reform was responsible for the abandonment of journals and groups 

These reforms were successful in making the country more satisfied as a whole and made dealing with everyday situations a simpler and more civilized thing The abolition of serfdom did not satisfy the peasants because they were freed but could not afford the thand they had once worked on They were then left with nothing and were expected to take care of themselves with nothing The goal of the People's Will was to overthrow the autocracy The politics of the British Liberal and Conservative parties differed between 1860 and 1890 because the Liberal Party favored social reform reducing the powers of the Church of England and expanding the voting electorate The Conservatives favored paternalistic legislation and government that would protect the weak Irish home rule was such a divisive issue in British politics because the movement articulated a longstanding Irish desire for the repeal of the Act of Union of 1800 by a demand for self government within the United Kingdom of Britain and Ireland It was divisive mainly because it drew from Britain's political power and stirred up controversy thinking Also if Ireland was awarded the right to control its local government this would weaken Britain's influence many politicians were separated on the idea whether Ireland should be given the power to control its own local government or to keep it the same way it had been years previous

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