Essay Example on The poultry industry is the most effective and economical Source









Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time Poultry producers are looking for some substitute of chicken meat which in the future will come in the form of pigeon and quail meat to contribute towards the increase in gross domestic production GDP through livestock sector Basit et al 2006 Urquhart 1996 Pigeon are probably one of the most common nuisance birds Pigeons have adapted to life in the city and they seem to be everywhere in urban environments Unfortunately the bird lovers of the world feed them and they have developed a dependence upon people thus reinforcing their dependency upon urban areas They roost on signs ledges almost anywhere and they bring nesting material and leave droppings everywhere Pigeons can carry or transmit encephalitis histoplasmosis Newcastle disease pigeon ornithosis cryptococcosis pigeon coccidiosis toxoplasmosis pseudotuberculosis and salmonella food poisoning Pigeons can also carry fleas ticks mites and other parasites Balicka Ramis et al 2007 Rehman 1993 It was shown that birds harbor ticks fleas mites and other ectoparasites 

The parasite bites an infected animal and sucks in blood containing the germ When the bug bites it passes along the germ to the new victim This occurs because parasites inject some of their saliva into the host when feeding Over forty types of parasites live either on the birds or in the places they roost They are responsible for the transmission of several hundreds viral and bacterial agents These diseases include plague encephalitis pox and meningitis Control of these parasites is a crucial phase of the bird control project Unless the parasites are exterminated when the birds are excluded from a site the mites fleas and ticks will seek to a new host often the human inhabitants Balakrishnan and Sorenson 2007 Soulsby 1982 Therefore a proper bird control project will always include parasite extermination The most common worms found in pigeons are roundworms hair worms stomach wall worms gapeworms strongly lids and tapeworms The symptoms vary with the type of infestation and conceivably pigeons can live with slight infestations and show no signs of illness Severe infestations generally cause droopiness loss of weight and diarrhea Gapeworms can cause breathing problems The best way to determine the existence of worm problem is to check the droppings Begum and Sheikh 1987 Kulisic 1988 Urquhart 1996 David 2003 The most common external parasites that pester our birds are feather lice red mites pigeon flies and mosquitoes Feather lice chew up holes into the flights or cause other types of visible damage to the feathers

The common red mite can be considered as a real problem if it becomes established It commonly hides somewhere in the loft during the day and comes out from its hiding place at night to bite and feed on the blood of the birds 

They can help to spread an assortment of diseases The pigeon fly is probably the most dangerous parasite that can attack the birds It lives most of its life on the pigeons leaving only to lay its eggs somewhere in the loft Pigeon flies bite the birds causing considerable discomfort and may be a major cause of pigeon malaria Mosquitoes would have to be considered the next worst parasite simply because they are found in almost all climates They are the most common carrier pigeon pox virus By keeping our lofts clean we can eliminate many of the places where mites and flies can hide their eggs The aim of this study was to investigate the Raillietina spp Tetramers Sygnamus Capillaria Ascaridia columbae and oocyst protozoa Phthiraptera Ceratophyllus columbae contamination in the faecal samples of pigeon 2 Materials and Methods This research were conducted because of several unofficial reported from different clinic and veterinary head quarter of the Ilam border line with Iraq from May to September 2011

The number of 250 faecal pigeon samples from mixed companion birds keeping in the cage with each other was used in this study Twenty five birds specific pathogen free SPF were managed in the hygienically environment and care was taken to avoid any contamination from outside as control and were kept in animal house school of veterinary sciences Ilam University and feed both group with the same ration and ingredient The tray at the bottom of the cages were completely washed and disinfected The fresh faeces were collected at least 3 grams Data were collected according to the questionnaire prepared regarding the number of the birds number of the deaths number of the sick birds and race of the birds The samples were immediately tested in laboratory 2 1 Diagnostic methods Faecal samples were examined by direct smear method whereas egg per gram EPG was counted by modified McMaster technique and centrifugal flotation method using Sheather s saturated sugar solution Soulsby 1982 The ectoparasites were collected as described by Soulsby 1982 Briefly after killing the pigeons by anaesthesia they were immediately placed in a polythene bag and the parasites were collected The ectoparasites were preserved for identification purposes in 70 alcohol Subcutaneous nodules of each bird were fixed in 10 potassium heated for 20 minutes in a jar containing water and the sediments were looked for parasite

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