Essay Example on The problem of alcoholism is becoming increasingly Important









The problem of alcoholism is becoming increasingly important because of the epidemiological and social danger of these pathologies This creates a real threat to the mental and physical health of the young and reproductive population which ultimately has a devastating effect on the gene pool of the nation The influence of alcohol and drugs on the body manifests itself in several different directions first this effect on certain neurotransmitter systems of the brain which causes the formation of the addiction syndrome Secondary alcohol has a toxic effect on virtually all internal organs and tissues and thirdly the effect of alcoholization of parents on offspring 1 Changes in the neurotransmitter in the development of dependence on alcohol and morphine are based mainly on the stem and limbic structures of the brain where there is a so called reinforcement system 2 3 Long term use of psychoactive substances leads to the depletion of the reserves of neurotransmitters which is manifested by an insufficiently pronounced stimulation of the reinforcement system Alcohol intake against this background again causes an additional release of neurotransmitters from the depot which temporarily compensates for their deficiency in the synaptic cleft and normalizes the activity of the limbic structures of the brain However catecholamines are rapidly destroyed again which leads to a further decrease in their content a worsening of the psychoemotional state and accordingly to the repeated intake of ethanol 

4 The purpose of my research is a comparative study of the effects of chronic alcohol intoxication on the state of the GABA ergic neurotransmitter system and muscle coordination of rats Hyposesis 1 Chronic administration of ethanol to animal effects to significant changes in their behavior and affects the abnormal muscle coordination 2 Prevalence of inhibitory processes in the nervous system activation of GABA ergic brain structures explains the decrease in motor activity and the general level of active wakefulness 4 Methods Behavioral paradigms Footprint Pattern Assay and reversed phase chromatography The cerebellum traditionally has been viewed as a neural device dedicated to motor control At present research is concentrated on a broader concept of cerebellar function in which the cerebellum is involved in diverse cognitive and noncognitive neurobehavioral systems including the attention and motor systems in order to anticipate imminent information acquisition analysis or action 5 Thus the object of reversed phase chromatography was chosen cerebellum Studies have indicated that adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to ethanol induced narcosis 6 and motor impairment

7 That's why we will take 88 male mongrel rats 1 year old Everyday footprints can reveal gait abnormalities and ataxia abnormal muscle coordination The fore and hind paws will painted with non toxic dyes of different colors The rats will be then allowed to walk along a runway into an enclosed box leaving their footprints on paper We will to measure a variety of gait parameters distance between each stride changes in stride length variability around a linear axis width between left and right hindpaws regularity of steps and overlap between fore and hind paws I will process the experimental data statistically in R analysis packages I ve been using the Student's t test Differences were considered significant at the level of p 0 05 For 7 days rats will be administered with injections 20 ethanol solution at a dose of 4 g kg We will introduce the sodium chloride at the same dosage in the control group Decollation will be held in an hour and 24 hours after administration of ethanol or sodium chloride After decapitation the skull will be opened the brain will be extracted and stored in nitrogen for further studies We will be separated cerebellum GABA will be determined by reversed phase chromatography after pre columnar derivatization with o phthalaldehyde and mercaptoethanol with isocratic elution and Nefedov fluorescence detection using chromatographic system with a fluorescence detector M420 Waters Assoc USA For calibration a solution of GABA 50 µM prepared similarly to samples of biological material was used Reception and processing of chromatograms will carried out with the help of the software and hardware complex MultiChrome 1 I expect that we will get these results 

Alcohol make destroying action on an organism of animals and humans too playing a major role in development of pathological processes In the cerebellum of the brain with chronic alcohol intoxication pronounced neurotransmitter changes will be observed Change from the side of the neurotransmitter amino acids will be was an increase in the concentration of glycine which to some extent confirms the prevalence of inhibitory processes in the CNS with prolonged administration In rats we observed a significant deviation when they walking and ataxia The rats in the ethanol exposed group showed slightly more activity walking for about 30 s longer The rats showed no signs of discomfort no voicing no spikey fur no discharge around the eyes no lethargy or sitting hunched in a corner no tremors or increased rate of respiration 8 Also the behavior of rats will be characterized by the loss of the rotation reflex radial decrease in time alcoholineurope sleep abnormal muscle coordination

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