Essay Example on The term ideology was firstly defined in the writings of Destutt de Tracy








The term ideology was firstly defined in the writings of Destutt de Tracy a French philosopher at the end of the 18th century According to the New Oxford Dictionary of English the ideology is a system of ideas and ideals especially one forming the basis of economic or political theory and policy Hatim and Mason 1997 p144 define this term as a set of the tacit assumptions beliefs and value systems that can be shared collectively by social groups Ideology is also considered as a belief system Hawkins 2001 stated that the ideology is a source of human conflicts and should be considered a crucial phenomenon like language in translation process A set of beliefs and value systems forming the ideology has a commanding influence on the society Ideology is a way of viewing the world by individuals and institutions In Mooney s study 2011 p 218 the term ideology is defined as a body of ideas or a set of beliefs held by people in their native language Translation is a political activity and product being the result of process of the negotiation among different agents including the translators readers as well authors While taking this factor into consideration the ideology can be also given such definition an action without knowledge or false consciousness Ideology is a term which can be viewed both in positive and negative political sense From a negative political sense ideology is identified as a system of wrong false distorted or otherwise misguided beliefs van Dijk qtd in Calzada Pérez 2003 3 The extension of the concept of ideology helps the people to formulate their lives and understand the relation to their milieu According to Plamentaz 1970 p 75 an ideology is evidently descriptive and explanatory and primarily persuasive

The main aspects of ideology are true and false knowledge It means that when the knowledge beliefs and interests of one party are same or intersect with other one at that time it leads to the true knowledge or knowledge to be ideological Things change when the interests of the parties differ strikingly and it in turn causes to the false knowledge A solution in the mind to the problems or contradictions that are not possible to resolve practically is an ideology Larrain 1979 p 46 12 Although the process and product of the translation are nearly interrelated the ideology of the translation can be followed in both of them Tymoczko 2003 states that the ideology of the translation could be a combination of the content of the source text and modifications made in the source text during the process of rendering the context to the target text The ideology of translation resides not only in the text translated but also in the voicing and stance of the translator and in its relevance to the receiving audience Tymoczko 2003 pp 182 83 Ideology is a set of certain concepts beliefs sentiments and presuppositions stemming from the cultural social political and contextual history of the certain individual class group or culture In Global Arabic Encyclopedia the term ideology is identified as an approach in thought tafkir which is based on the relevant assumptions and simplification of social political movements It means that the translators ideological interference is reflected in the interpretation of the translated text According to Newmark 1981 the choice of the translators whether using communicative or semantic methods is called ideological mediation It can be defined as an attitude towards mass readership and the text producer He stresses that some particular words possessing injurious cultural senses and suggesting connotative meanings which are apart from their explicit names should be taken into account by translators For rendering culture specific items CSI Newmark introduces several strategies 

His taxonomy 1988 includes Transference the process of transferring the source language SL word to the target one which includes transliteration relating to the conversion of different alphabets Naturalization the conformity of SL word to the normal pronunciation and morphology of the target language TL respectively Cultural Equivalent the replacement of cultural word from SL to TL which leads to non accurate translation Through Translation calque or loan translation the literal translation of common collocations names of organizations etc Recognized Translation the usage of the generally accepted translation of any term Notes Additions Glosses an extra information that the translators should use or add to his version during the translation process Language without ideology or ideology without language is unfeasible Both language and ideology are culturally fixed with each other While rendering texts the translators are willing to decrease their own cultural stands including beliefs knowledge and attitudes Both at the lexical and grammatical levels within a certain text ideological aspects which may be more or less obvious can be determined depending on the topic and genre of the text and communication purposes Schäffner 2003 p 23 13

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