Essay Example on The Wireless Personal Area Networks WPANs is covered by this Group









The Wireless Personal Area Networks WPANs is covered by this group Communications specification that was approved in early 2002 by the IEEE for wireless personal area networks Different technologies are covered by several subgroups 2 802 15 1 Bluetooth based Short range 10m wireless technology for cordless keyboard mouse and hands free headset at 2 4 GHz 3 802 15 3a To provide a higher speed Ultra wideband UWB PHY enhancement amendment to IEEE 802 15 3 for applications which involve imaging and multimedia Short range high bandwidth ultra wideband link This was withdrawn in January 2006 4 802 15 4 ZigBee Short range wireless sensor networks IEEE 802 15 4 is a technical standard covering the operation of low rate wireless personal area networks LR WPANs This standard was defined in 2003 and maintained by the IEEE 802 15 working group it covers the physical layer and media access control for LR WPANs It forms the basis for the ZigBee ISA100 11a WirelessHART MiWi SNAP Thread specifications each of which further extends the standard by developing the upper layers which are not defined in IEEE 802 15 4 It can also be used with 6LoWPAN the technology used to deliver the IPv6 version of the Internet Protocol IP over WPANs to define the upper layers 5 IEEE 802 15 5 Mesh Network Extension of network coverage without increasing the transmit power or the receiver sensitivity Enhanced reliability via route redundancy Easier network configuration Better device battery life 6 802 15 5 provides the architectural framework enabling WPAN devices to promote interoperable stable and scalable wireless mesh networking It is composed of two parts i low rate WPAN mesh less which is built on IEEE 802 15 4 2006 MAC and ii high rate WPAN mesh networks which utilize IEEE 802 15 3 3b 

MAC Common features of both meshes include network initialization addressing and multihop unicasting In addition the low rate mesh supports multicasting reliable broadcasting portability support trace route and energy saving function and the high rate mesh supports multihop time guaranteed service XVIII EEE 802 16 1 This is a series of wireless broadband standards for broadband for wireless metropolitan area networks The 802 16 standard essentially standardizes two aspects of the air interface the physical layer PHY and the media access control MAC layer Covers both OFDM and OFDMA physical layers OFDM is referred as fixed wimax and OFDMA as mobile wimax This family of standards covers Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access methods used to create Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks WMANs 2 IEEE 802 16 2017 Draft Standard for Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems approved by IEEE The standard promotes early and fast deployment all over the world of ingenuous and cost reasonable and interoperable multi vendor broadband wireless access products and encourages competition in broadband access by alternatives provisioning to wireline broadband access encourages regular and constant worldwide spectrum allocations and speeding up commercialization of broadband wireless access systems IEEE 802 17 1 Resilient Packet Ring 802 17

A new ring topology network architecture called the Resilient Packet Ring RPR is standardized to be used primarily in metropolitan wide area networks 2 Fiber optic rings are widely deployed in Metropolitan and Wide Area Networks Protocols that are neither optimized nor scalable to the demands of packet networks are presently being used by these rings including speed of deployment bandwidth allocation throughput resistance to faults lower equipment and operational costs 3 The IEEE 802 17 Resilient Packet Ring Working Group defines standards to support the development and deployment of Resilient Packet Ring RPR networks in Local Metropolitan and Wide Area Networks for resilient and efficient transfer of data packets at rates scalable to many gigabits per second Existing Physical Layer specifications are built upon by these standards and new PHYs where appropriate are developed IEEE 802 17 is a part of the IEEE 802 LAN MAN Standards Committee 4 IEEE 802 17 RPR protocol is a ring based network protocol designed for the optimized transport of data traffic over optical fiber ring networks The design is to provide the resilience found in SONET SDH networks 50 ms protection but provides a packet based transmission instead of setting up circuit oriented connections aiming to increase the efficiency of Ethernet IP services 5 Similar to other IEEE 802 standards IEEE 802 17 has both a physical and a medium access control MAC layer

An important feature of the physical layer is the use of a dual ring topology using optical fiber at high data rates up to 1 Gbps or more Data can be transmitted simultaneously on both rings in normal operation doubling the capacity Robustness is provided by the dual ring topology by including a capability for automatic reconfiguration after a link failure 6 The main purpose is to provide enhanced services for the transmission of Ethernet packets over a ring based interconnect topology at the MAC level This means a simple mapping from the Ethernet frame format to the RPR frame format 7 RPR runs on a concept of dual counter rotating rings referred to as ringlets These ringlets are set up by creating RPR stations at nodes where traffic is supposed to drop per flow a flow is the ingress and egress of data traffic Media Access Control protocol MAC messages to direct the traffic is used by RPR which can use either ringlet of the ring The nodes also negotiate for bandwidth among themselves using fairness algorithms avoiding congestion failed spans Failed spans are avoided by using one of two techniques known as steering wrapping All nodes are notified of a topology change they reroute their traffic if a node or span is broken under steering The traffic is looped back in wrapping at the last node before the break routed to the destination station

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