Essay Example on The Zika virus also known as ZIKAV or ZIKV









The Zika virus also known as ZIKAV or ZIKV is in the virus family Flaviviridae which includes West Nile and dengue fever It is a disease that is transmitted mainly through mosquitoes however sexual transmission between people is possible as well Usually a minor self limited illness when symptomatic causing a maculopapular rash fever and or conjunctivitis but it can also be asymptomatic However contracting Zika during pregnancy can cause outcomes such as loss of the fetus microcephaly or other serious brain abnormalities The virus was first isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest Uganda then in mosquitoes Aedes africanus in the same forest in 1948 and in a human in Nigeria in 1952 Factsheet about Zika virus disease 2017 To epidemiologically describe this disease one of the most popular models will be used the epidemiological triangle This model uses the interactions between the host environment and the causative agent of the disease In this instance the environment factors include the climate much of the tropical and temperate places of the world that have more rainfall and warmer climates socioeconomic factors human travel and population growth and crowding clearly have played an important role in Zika s emergence 

Fauci Morens 2017 and biological factors swampy and watery areas that are great for mosquitoes to breed and to feed on the areas other animals The hosts for this disease are of every ethnicity all outbreaks reached all age groups Barreto Costa et al 2016 most cases where seen in women but this could be due to the fact that women are the ones who attend health services and it is seen in those who travel to the poverty stricken and over crowded parts of the world The agent as already discussed is the flavivirus and its vector the mosquito Zika is spread by mosquitos biting animals or humans already infected and then biting someone who is not It can also spread between mother and fetus sexual transmission and bodily fluids The incubation period for Zika virus is anywhere from three to fourteen days after getting bit by an infected mosquito There are two strains of the Zika virus and Asian and an African lineage the Asian strain replicate at a much lower levels in tissues many months after the initial infection The African strain has more pathogenicity or causes more harm to the host because it can replicate faster and causes cell death During the Flavivirus evolution mutations were acquired that altered its virulence depending on the strain Statistics show that in certain areas Zika has taken a foothold and continues to spread In Maricopa county Arizona this is hardly the situation though in 2017 there were 3 travel related cases Mosquito Vector Borne Diseases Maricopa County AZ 2018 In the entirety of Arizona there was 1637 total suspected Zika virus cases AZDHS Epidemiology Disease Control Mosquito Borne 2018 but there was only the three confirmed cases that were in Maricopa County 

Throughout the United States there were quite a few more cases 407 symptomatic Zika virus disease cases reported 398 cases in travelers returning from affected areas 4 cases acquired through mosquito borne transmission in Florida and Texas and 5 cases acquired through sexual transmission Zika Virus 2018 Internationally Zika cases were countless from 1 January 2015 to 9 March 2017 there were 802 963 suspected and confirmed autochthonous ZIKAV disease cases Fischer Hills Petersen 2017 The Zika virus originally thought to be a fairly non threatening pathogen became a global health crisis This caused many organizations to set up strategic responses to its spread The global Zika virus outbreak teams and their partners response to the Zika outbreak was to focus more on preventing and managing medical problems caused by Zika Anytime there is an epidemic or outbreak of a disease health care professionals take on a huge role to help manage and prevent the spread of the disease There is currently no vaccines for the Zika virus so the key is prevention of the disease There are three levels of prevention used by health care professionals primary secondary and tertiary Primary prevention is education about prevention and advocacy and public policy development to control the disease In the case of Zika the primary prevention includes educating the public about mosquito bite prevention such as insect repellent when outside wearing clothing that covers most of the body putting screens on windows and sleeping under a mosquito net mosquito population control emptying cleaning or covering containers that can hold water to reduce areas where mosquitoes can breed including in and around households

Zika Virus Infection 2018 as well as education on the prevention of non vector transmission such as sexual transfusion maternally or nosocomial Women who live or travel within areas likely to be infected with Zika should discuss with their doctors the potential side effects or risks associated with the disease Secondary prevention includes screening people for a disease in areas that are more likely to have the disease With Zika health care professionals could possibly have to travel to remote parts of the world to test villages and such for the Zika virus or they would have to travel to over crowded places to do the same and to screen blood donations Tertiary prevention involves teaching people who already have the disease to manage it and to live the best life they can As for those with Zika they should be taught about protecting themselves from further mosquito exposure while in the first week of infection This prevents other mosquitos from becoming infected and passing it along

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