Essay Example on Topic General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT

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Issues Motivated For Choosing This Topic General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT was a legal agreement between many countries whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by decreasing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas GATT was signed by 23 nations in Geneva on October 30 1947 and the GATT officially took effect on January 1 1948 It remained in effect till the time it was signed by 123 nations in Marrakesh on April 14 1994 of the Uruguay Round Agreements which established the World Trade Organization WTO on January 1 1995 The WTO was the successor of GATT and the original GATT text GATT 1947 is still in effect under the WTO framework subject to the modifications of GATT 1994 The Norwegian economy is a developed mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas Although it is sensitive to global business cycles the economy of Norway has shown a solid growth since the start of the industrial era The country has a very high standard of living as compared with other European countries and a strongly integrated welfare system NORWAY IMPLEMENTS TRADE REFORMS AND STRENGTHENS ITS COMMITMENT TO THE MULTILATERAL TRADING SYSTEM Norway has been a member of GATT since 10 July 1948 and also a member of WTO since 01st January 1995 Instigated both by its membership in the European Economic Area EEA and by its implementation of the Uruguay Round results Norway has taken steps to liberalize its economy resulting in a better and stronger trade regime According to a new WTO report on Norway s trade policies and practices the Norwegian economy now shows signs of continued growth falling inflation and lower unemployment Questions 



1 Reasons for the continuous growth and other variables 2 How did GATT helped Norway in their economical development 3 What were the steps taken by the Norwegian Government Origin and Nature The origin of GATT was inspired by the success of agreement for international monetary cooperation as reflected in the formation of the IMF similar co operation as reflected in international trade also was desired by many trading nations for expansion of world trade During the International Conference on Trade and Employment held in 1946 at Havana there was a proposal for establishing an agency called the International Trade Organisation ITO was made with the miscellaneous and general objective for employment and maintaining world trade Some countries took up one of the most important issues of Havana Charter regarding the relaxation of Trade Restrictions by forming GATT It was signed in 1947 by 23 major trading countries GATT has more than 64 members now Under GATT the member nations meet at regular intervals to discuss and negotiate agreement to reduce the quota tariffs and other related restrictions in International Trade Basically it is a treaty that is collectively administered by the member nations GATT has now changed into World Trade Organization The WTO took place on 01st January 1995 The WTO still works on the guidelines given in GATT 1994 Now it has become a permanent international operations to secure the conduct of International Trade Literature Review 



Developing countries in the ITO and GATT negotiations Citation James Scott 2010 Developing countries in the ITO and GATT negotiations Journal of International Trade Law and Policy Vol 9 Issue 1 pp 5 24 Abstract The literature examining the participation of developing countries in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT and International Trade Organisation ITO negotiations generally sees their attitudes towards these projects as having been driven exclusively by a commitment to import substitution This commitment it is argued led developing countries to oppose many aspects of the GATT ITO project particularly the requirement for reciprocal tariff cuts The purpose of this paper is to focus on examining the critical period around the ultimately doomed negotiation of the Charter for an ITO and the process of creating the GATT Design Methodology Approach This paper draws from GATT documents and from the literature on economic history to give a more comprehensive account of the motivating ideas underpinning developing countries attitudes to the post war negotiations Norwegian Dairy Industry A Case of Super Regulated CoOperativism Citation Reidar Almås Jostein Brobakk 2012 Norwegian Dairy Industry A Case of Super Regulated CoOperativism in Reidar Almås Hugh Campbell ed Rethinking Agricultural Policy Regimes Food Security Climate Change and the Future Resilience of Global Agriculture Research in Rural Sociology and Development Volume 18 Emerald Group Publishing Limited pp 169 189 Abstract Dairy has been the backbone of agriculture in regional Norway and the processing of milk has been dominated by cooperatives owned by milk farmers 



During the social democratic order 1945 1979 productivist agriculture thrived while a more multifunctional agriculture was developed after 1980 As a measure against overproduction a quota system was introduced in 1983 The purpose of this study is to see if there are signs of a neo productivism revival after climate change and other global shocks like the food crisis featured prominently on the political agenda Design methodology approach The chapter reviews the radical structural changes in Norwegian dairy production since the early 1960s which reduced the number of milk farms radically from 148 000 in 1959 to almost 16 000 in 2009 According to the Agricultural Agreement between the Norwegian government and the farmers organisations the co operatives are given an important semi public role as market price regulators and stock keepers This Norwegian system may be described as a classical regulated dairy regime The Norwegian dairy regime has been through several deregulations and re regulations over the last 20 years partly forced by internal pressures and partly inspired by liberalisation tendencies abroad


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