Essay Example on Wells operated without supervision can always be Faulty









Wells operated without supervision can always be faulty using too much power or losing capacity this generally causes lower performance resulting in higher cost of operation and maintenance The oil reservoir may run dry in certain cases therefore continuous monitoring of the oil well and the oil field equipment is essential to ensure there is a reliable supply and optimum performance This system will audit and control the elements that influence the well s performance in real time This checks on hydraulic variables such as flow pressure or even level and the data can be accessed locally via the pc or remotely online When the system detects any abnormal conditions alarms will be triggered and sms notifications will be sent to the maintenance personnel who can the address the issues Furthermore periodic reports from the oil well s condition makes this system powerful predictive tool essential for the planning of predictive maintenance and also early preparation of processes such as hydraulic fracking to boost the production of the oil well Some well heads have wireless load cells which are solar powered wireless digital communication u shape structure and transmits there data to the wireless receiver on the ground which transmits the data collected to control centers Demanding energy economics require more efficient oil well drilling processes so that mud engineers mud loggers drillers geologists and Measurement While Drilling MWD engineers can have real time information exchange between the rig site and the command centres 

This requires costly and complex hardware and software infrastructure Therefore in order to have real time access to key drilling and evaluation parameters where one can make informed decisions on the spot maximize the economic value of the operations and minimize risks through real time view of drilling operations the next generation MWD LWD surface system was developed This enabled digital oilfield efficiencies and cost saving with real time view of operations by getting data on demand anytime anywhere with no need of additional hardware or software It is a web based application with a user friendly interface compatible with any HTML 5 web browser This enables remote monitoring and diagnostics This proposed system will ensure high reliability and accuracy by using the raw data recording which allows playback and recalculation while still in hole It will also enable multiple users to get access to the data concurrently The system can also be updated automatically while running whenever connectivity is established P an t are collected at each installation point Installing casing conveyed permanent down hole monitoring system gives better accuracy in correlating reservoir pressure to injection and production pressure at the wellhead This results in better predictions monitoring and evaluation of the project PDM uses combination of sensors attached to the outside of the well casing to provide a rich source of data without interfering with production and injection activities The heart of the PDM system is sensors that record temperature and pressure and relay the data to a data logger in the surface The system is made up of two types of monitors The first is the distributed temperature system DTS which is a fibre optic line that runs the entire length of the casing which monitors temperature every metre thus providing a profile of temperature from the bottom of the well to the surface The second system consists of pressure temperature gauges fastened at discrete levels along the outside of the casing string The PT gauges are connected to each other and to the surface data logger through a multi conductor armory cable similar to a wireline logging cable Pressure and temperature data are collected at each installation point

The pressure gauge must have direct access to the fluids at the surrounding formations to measure pressure effectively This occurs in one of two ways Initially access is achieved through a pore in a pressure pad located several feet below the gauge connected via a cord and stainless steel capillary tube This port sits against the borehole wall and measures the formation pressure Once well installation is complete access to formation pressure is enhanced by making an opening through the tubing and cement into the formation with a perforating charge This method provides a more reliable means of accessing formation pressure If the charges don't fire the pressure pad will still provide the pathway for measuring formation pressure The perforating charge is fired using hydraulic pressure This line runs from the firing head of the perforating charge to the surface The multi conductor cable hydraulic tubing and the fibre optic lines are secured along the outside of the casing with clamps and bands Once the well is cemented and the wellhead is attached the perforating charges are fired This requires trained technicians special care and coordination among several contractors beyond the normal installation In addition it requires modified wellhead components specialized equipment custom fabricated casing joints a well bore with minimal deviation precision depth control of casing placement and additional well logging to confirm that the equipment is accurately placed This may double the time required to case the well as additional care is needed to ensure that all the equipment connections remain intact Once the oil production zone has been identified the temperature and pressure gauges are deployed evenly within that zone Provides data on the behaviour of the fluids between different zones of the reservoir as well as a means of redundancy should one of the probes fail or become damaged during installation Apart from deployment of the sensors in the production zones other sensors are fitted in the overlying zones for fluid and pressure migration during injection production and storage operations Adequate spacing depending on the geology of the site is important to obtain independent readings as opposed to when the probes are quite close The project requires a near vertical hole that has adequate diameter to accommodate the external casing components But not so large as to prevent the pressure pad from touching the formation once installed

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