Since the beginning of the 20th century ionizing radiation starts playing a very important role in medical diagnostics and medicine There was a need for radiation safety during X ray studies and radiation protection of personnel In this connection it s very important to understand the essence of ionizing radiation and how ionizing radiation interrelate with biological matter X ray radiation that is generated by diagnostic devices poses a certain danger to personnel patients and people in neighbouring rooms In this regard their operation and placement must comply with the requirements of radiation safety Two of the most important ionizing regulations in the UK is IRR99 and IR MER 2000 Another very important document is the Policy for the Use of Ionizing Radiation in which local rules are indicated 2 As state in physic central Ionizing radiation is any type of particle or electromagnetic wave that carries enough energy to ionize or remove electrons from an atom There are two types of electromagnetic waves that can ionize atoms X rays and gamma rays Humanity on the earth has constantly been exposed to natural sources of ionizing radiation radon gas and cosmic rays for example as well as human made sources in modern days X ray machines nuclear power generation Depending on the dose received radiation exposure can have a negative impact on human health The unstable atoms of ionizing radiation like Alpha Beta and Gamma rays can damage DNA and the structure of cells Passing through cells ionising radiation destroys their biological processes
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The cell can become cancerous or die because of changes in the biological process of a cell which could also destroy enzymes Human sex organs are very sensitive and exposure humans to the ionizing radiation are very dangerous and can cause genetic mutations in offspring because their DNA could experience biochemical changes In recent years especially after the tragedies in Hiroshima and Chernobyl people are very afraid of radiation exposure but not many know that it also has a positive impact The natural radiation background is a stimulator of cell division and one of the mechanisms of maintaining structural homeostasis A complex of such signs is called the syndrome of radiation deficit The lack of radiation can adversely affect human health Especially strongly ionizing radiation affects infants and children As for the adult population the effect of ionizing radiation depends on the age and general condition of the body and its immune system Damage to living tissue from exposure to ionizing radiation can sometimes lead to radiation sickness cancer and death Each person receives an average annual radiation dose of about 310mrem but most of this dose we get from the medical use of radiation and radioactive material One of the main sources of the dose for medical purposes is Computed tomography For an average person is approximately 150 mrem per year Due to ionizing radiation is invisible Geiger counters detection instrument are required to detect it To protect themselves from radiation health workers in hospitals should wear lead vests or stand behind a protective barrier during an X ray and wear personal dosimeters In places where radioactivity is used there must be a guide to evacuation procedures Personal Protective Equipment and a universal symbol for the designation of radioactive material According to Alan Martin The protection of the public and workers from the harmful effects of ionising radiation has been a concern of radiation protection professionals since the early part of the 20th century when harmful effects were first observed Since that time the detrimental effects of ionising radiation have been extensively studied from the fundamental nature of radiation s effects on cells organs and organisms to the epidemiological study of large populations who have been exposed to various levels of ionising radiation Based on these studies over time an international system of radiation protection has been built largely through the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP Radiation is currently viewed as one of the most studied of all known carcinogens There are two main regulations in the UK leading the use of ionizing radiation which forms part of The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 IRR99 The Ionising Radiation Medical Exposure Regulations 2000 IR ME R 2000 According to the current legislation X ray rooms should not be placed under or above the chambers of children or pregnant women The radiologist should be protected by lead glass and a multi layered lead apron To improve the radiation safety of patients improves qualification and responsibility of personnel for performing procedures that leads to a reduction in the radiation explosion of the adult s population children and pregnant woman For individual control each radiograph should be provided with an individual dosimeter the results of which are recorded and stored for 50 years According to RADIATION PROTECTION NO 175 GUIDELINES European legal requirements were introduced in this area during the 1980s when Euratom legislation for radiation protection of patients was first adopted It s very important to introduced local rules radiation protection as well As stated in Local Rules Ionising Radiation 2017 Every employer who undertakes work with ionising radiations is required to produce Local Rules The purpose of such rules is to set out the key arrangements for restricting exposure in a particular area At Newcastle University these will be referred to as the Policy for the Use of Ionising Radiation To ensure radiation safety of the population personnel and the environment three basic principles of radiation safety are observed optimisation justification dose limitation and radiation protection requirements The principle of justification includes the prohibition of all types of activities for the use of radiation sources in which the benefits for the individual and society do not exceed the risk of possible harm caused by irradiation The optimization principle envisages maintaining at the lowest possible and achievable level both individual and collective doses of exposure considering social and economic factors
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