Essay Example on Alcohol misuse is a serious current health issue in Scotland

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Alcohol misuse is a serious current health issue in Scotland There are more alcohol related deaths in Scotland than any other part of the UK a recent study has shown Alcohol related liver disease in Scotland is on the rise with the average age of death being 59 years old In the past decade there is five times the increase in 35 55 year olds developing cirrhosis of the liver due to alcohol misuse Men make up 35 of the population drinking more than 14 units per week compared to the 17 of women Liver disease in the United Kingdom is the 5th largest cause of death and 70 of liver cirrhosis is consequential of excess alcohol The Scotsman 2017 Alcohol misuse increases the risk of developing many long term health issues such as heart disease stroke liver disease and cancers As well as many health issues long term alcohol misuse can also affect people socially and lead to unemployment relationship breakdowns and homelessness NHS Choices 2015 Alcohol harm costs the Scottish Health Service 267 million per year and overall an annual cost of 3 6 billion per year in health social care as well as alcohol related crime costs Alcohol Focus Scotland 2017 Alcohol related deaths in Scotland are linked to social deprivation Social influences have an effect on alcohol misuse and reports agree that alcohol is readily available cheap and widely marketed and young people are living in a society where drinking is seen as the norm Peer pressure is another social influence on young people with the most common location among underage drinkers being at parties with friends Alcohol Focus Scotland 2017

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Functionalism is a sociological theory which views society as a body that needs fed economic system guided political system and regulated family and education systems Functionalists see society as a system based on shared values and everyone should work together for a common benefit Socialisation is required to ensure that values and the norms of society are learned and passed down through generations In 1952 a sociologist named Talcott Parsons proposed the sick role and described illness as a deviance to society The sick role assumes a person is not responsible for their own ill health and all normal duties such as work and family duties will not be carried out by a sick person The sick must also be seen to be trying to get better and seek appropriate medical care NHS England 2014 If Alcohol Misuse in Scotland continues to be seen in society as the norm then a dysfunctional society will be built Many long term alcohol users are unable to work or function properly due to health issues causing them to be unable to return to society as a functioning member Alcoholism can have a stigma attached and people can be seen as bringing any illness they have on themselves due to their drinking behaviours this does not correspond to Parson s theory that a sick person is not responsible for their ill health Sociology in Focus 2012 The behaviourist Theory is a psychological Theory which studies actions and behaviour Behaviourists such as Ivan Pavlov believe that all behaviour is learned from environmental influences for example learned influences from parents or siblings Behaviourists also believe we are all born blank slates and we learn things through observations and repetition of what we see It is also believed that behaviours can be unlearned and new behaviours taught The behaviourist theory can be linked to alcohol misuse as drinking behaviours may have been observed and learned through family members leading to alcohol abuse and addiction

As behaviourists agree that behaviours can be unlearned it is possible for a person to overcome such addictions by setting goals and changing current habits slowly with appropriate care and encouragement from the carer Simply Psychology 2017 To apply such care a therapeutic relationship with the patient must be established The therapeutic relationship is a relationship between the carer and the patient which promotes person centred care and is based on mutual trust and respect Nursing Times 2015 The importance of a therapeutic relationship is to provide safe and effective care It is important the patient feels unjudged and should feel a positive sense of direction and support from the relationship There are many values and skills which should be applied in the therapeutic relationship Respect should be shown to the patient at all times with the patient's dignity being kept and non judgemental care provided Trust in the relationship provides a foundation with the patient being more likely to accept advice support and effective care Empathy towards the patient allows the carer to understand and perceive their feelings while being supportive Communication skills both verbal and non verbal should be applied as it is important that the patient feels they have an emotional connection with the carer Listening asking questions and using general conversation are ways in which verbal communication can be used Non verbal communication such as body language is also an important aspect and facing people with a relaxed posture and appropriate eye contact are some ways in which body language can promote a healthy therapeutic relationship

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