Essay Example on Bacteria Back in 1683 on September seventeenth the most important Discovery









Bacteria Back in 1683 on September seventeenth the most important discovery ever made was reported to the Royal Society in London Antonie van Leeuwenhoek had discovered small microorganisms on human dental plaque using his homemade microscope CBS 2017 He had called them animalcules but nowadays they are more commonly known as bacteria Bacteria had originated from small cells when the Earth first formed about 3 billion years ago in Earth s very first oceans Since then they have evolved into many different types from harmful to helpful CBS 2017 Cooper 2000 ENI 2018 Cellular Structure of Bacteria Bacteria have several different parts Usually a bacteria cell typically has no nucleus as they are prokaryotes However they do have deoxyribonucleic acid more commonly known as DNA which is usually a rubber band shaped molecule the DNA usually carries the information to make new cells and how to make a cell s proteins Bacteria also have ribosomes or minuscule circular organelles made of mostly protein and other material 

The ribosomes are often used to make protein for the bacteria and are not covered by a membrane A bacterium also has an exterior cell wall used to maintain the shape of the cell Right inside of the cell wall a cell membrane acts as a barrier for most of the organelles within the cell The cell membrane is usually made of lipids or fats and cholesterols proteins and phospholipids or lipids that contain phosphorus Then within the membrane is the cytoplasm which is a jelly like material that fills up most of the cell Bacteria will also usually have a nucleoid which is an irregular shaped organelle made of DNA RNA and some protein The nucleoid usually sits in the cytoplasm A bacterium may also have a flagellum which is essentially like a tail on the outside of a bacteria which is used for movement BBC 2014 Duffy 2004 Reproduction of Bacteria Bacteria reproduce asexually which means that they reproduce using only one cell Bacteria specifically reproduce using binary fission Usually binary fission will start with one cell replicating its DNA Next it will stretch into one long cell and eventually divide into two daughter cells The daughter cells will both have identical DNA which means that if one has a certain weakness chances are the other cell also has the same weakness 

Binary fission can and will occur many times at once and eventually will make as much as nearly 17 million cells in a matter of hours Because of that if you have pathogenic microbes inside your body, for example, you can get sick very quickly Microbiology Society 2018 DNA of Bacteria In most cases, bacterial DNA is stored in the bacterial chromosome or a singular circular molecule Along with the chromosome bacteria also usually have several plasmids which also carry DNA Despite the fact that plasmids often have merely several genes plasmids are very important in a cell Often cells without plasmids survive and reproduce less than a cell with plasmids Plasmids are capable of making the host stay alive longer in stressful situations For example if the bacterium is hit by antibiotics plasmids can provide the host protection by resistance Plasmids can also help by providing genes that allow the host to digest unusual and foreign substances or even kill other rival types of bacteria

Plasmids are very determined to stay within a cell Some kinds have a poison that can kill a cell if the cell does not have the antidote regularly from the plasmid this allows the plasmid to metaphorically keep the host hostage Science Learning Hub 2018 Behavior of Bacteria Bacteria often do many interesting actions Interaction with Other Organisms Bacteria have a tendency to interact with other organisms Whether it is for positive or negative reasons bacteria always need a host to live off of For example pathogenic bacteria can enter a human body and cause a string of different diseases such as tuberculosis salmonella food poisoning and one of the more well known whooping cough pertussis to name a few BBC 2014 Some bacteria are predatory which means they will cannibalize other bacteria through killing and consuming in order to survive 

Some commonly known ones are Vampirococcus and Bdellovibrio NCBI 1986 There are also mutualists which are bacteria that provide benefits for benefits These kinds of bacteria are often found in the human body but they are definitely beneficial they live in the intestines and helps digest the food and in return the bacteria will receive energy after digesting food NECSI 2011 Conclusion Nowadays the discovery of bacteria has benefited mankind in too many ways to count The discovery of bacteria has saved millions of lives since humans now know what causes diseases such as cholera or tetanus and humans are capable of making vaccinations to prevent these illnesses along with antibiotic medication for those who are already ill Not only that but the discovery of bacteria has also helped make our foods better thanks to the knowledge on bacteria humans have gathered humans are capable of making more complex foods requiring the use of bacteria such as bread cheese and even yogurt Humans are yet to discover more benefits of bacteria today and the more scientists know the more it can be used to make bacteria mankind s friend not enemy

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