Essay Example on Fruits and vegetables as vital components of the human Diet

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Fruits and vegetables as vital components of the human diet are required mostly to complete 89 a balanced diet They provide essential nutrients that are required to maintain a healthy body 90 through the prevention or reduction of disease cases These produce similar to other crops 91 during pre and postharvest stages are mostly attacked by pests and Keikotlhaile and 92 Spanoghe 2011 Pesticides the likely solution to pest damage and possible disease infections 93 are mainly used in agriculture to enhance productivity by preventing or reducing losses from 94 weeds diseases and insect pests Ibitomi and Mohammed 2016 that can noticeably decrease 95 the quantity of harvestable produce Zhang 2009 Nevertheless organic pesticides have 96 negative consequences on living organisms and the environment Keikotlhaile and Spanoghe 97 2011 They are characteristically persistent against degradation and removal semi volatile 98 bio accumulative and even highly toxic to humans and their surroundings at significantly 99 lower concentrations Yu et al 2005 Liu et al 2009 Long term lower dose exposures are 100 increasingly linked to immunosuppression hormone disorder diminished brainpower 101 reproductive abnormalities cancer asthma and heart related ailments Kitamura et al 2003 102 Neishabouri et al 2004 Gilden et al 2010 103 Rigorous research has been devoted to understanding and accepting the complex interactions 104 of human pathogens with plants and how advances in microbiological safety issues 105 concerning fresh produce can be accomplished Warriner et al 2009

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Fruits and vegetables 106 which are mostly consumed raw or minimally processed are considered likely carriers and 107 transmission vehicles of pathogens Berger et al 2010 Recent public health campaigns for 108 healthier living styles has led to an exponential increase in demand and consumption of fruits 109 and vegetables hence an increase in possible cases of food borne illnesses Several 110 investigations directed towards the potential sources of fruits and vegetable contaminations 111 by microorganism in the food supply chain have settled on the pre harvest and post harvest 112 stages of production Berger et al 2010 Possible sources of vegetable contamination 113 include irrigation and postharvest processing water Sivapalasingam et al 2003 Hamilton et 114 al 2006 poorly composted or raw animal manures or sewage Natvig et al 2002 115 Santamaria and Toranzos 2003 droppings of wild animals Ackers et al 1998 and insects 116 such as flies Talley et al 2009 117 Recently cost effective and efficient methods have been developed that could eliminate 118 residual pesticides and microbial activities while partially or completely reducing or 119 excluding thermal requirements Emerging technologies including high hydrostatic pressure 120 Iizuka et al 2013 Iizuka and Shimizu 2014 pulsed electric field Zhang et al 2012 non 5 121 thermal plasma Bai et al 2009 Misra et al 2014 irradiation Trebse and Arcon 2003 122 ozonation Wu et al 2007 Ikeura et al 2011 Chen et al 2013 and ultrasonication Dust 123 and Warren 2001 Schramm and Hua 2001 Matouq et al 2008 Yao et al 2010 Knorr et 124 al 2004 Cameron et al 2009 have been extensively investigated for numerous 125 decontamination applications in food and water research Ultrasound has been one promising 126 technology developed to lessen processing maximize quality and ensure the safety of food 127 products

Through its cavitational effects on matrices ultrasound has been applied effectively 128 in the inactivation of microorganisms Knorr et al 2004 Cameron et al 2009 Birmpa et al 129 2013 Ferrario et al 2015 Cruz Casino et al 2016 removal and degradation of pesticides 130 Tianli et al 2009 Zhang et al 2010a 2010b Lozowicka et al 2016 in fruits and 131 vegetables 

High power ultrasound possesses the potential to be developed into an advance 132 oxidation process for food safety enhancement preservation and shelf life improvement 133 devoid of quality and organoleptic property losses Knorr et al 2004 Chemat et al 2011 134 Gao et al 2014 As an alternative technique to pasteurization and sterilization ultrasound is 135 attaining significance owed to the increasing level of awareness and consumer demand for 136 new improved methods of food processing that do not impact negatively on overall food 137 quality Yuting et al 2013 Gao et al 2014 Factors that may turn to be influential to 138 ultrasound efficiency as a decontamination technology are as follows 1 type of fruit or 139 vegetable 2 target pesticide or microorganism 3 initial pesticide concentration or 140 microbial load 4 chemical composition of the pesticide or physiological state of the 141 bacterial cells and 5 ultrasonic operating conditions and variables 142 In this review ultrasound applications in pesticide removal and degradation and 143 microorganism inactivation in fruits and vegetables were highlighted Routes of 144 contamination and scientific literature supporting the mechanisms levels and possible 145 inefficiencies of ultrasonic decontamination and quality attributes of sonicated products were 146 presented


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