Essay Example on Pipelines are the very effective method of to transport fluids across the Distances









CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Pipelines are the very effective method of to transport fluids across the distances The oil and gas industries have developed an effective world wide distribution network for both crude and refined products involving pipelines tankers barges trucks and rail transportation Pipelines are the very economical method of transportation and are most suited for movement across long distances for example over continents Pipeline structures are most vulnerable to several degradation including construction related defects aging related defects corrosion metal loss cracking stress etc or soon third party damage and weather environment related threats earthquakes various temperature conditions rough seas etc Accident related defects of oil and gas pipelines beyond causing heavy economic losses also cause a major environment hazard and a threat to life and therefore be prevented using efficient pipeline integrity management processes In order to protect these pipelines maintenance must be done and PIGS are one such maintenance tool During the 1940s pipelines in the United States America were mainly being pigged to remove paraffins to increase effectiveness in crude oil pipelines in order to maximize flow conditions 2 The pigging equipments utilized at that time were limited to a few applications while being very crude in nature 

Nowadays pipelines are being pigged for several of reasons and the pigging equipment called as PIG used is designed by engineers to execute various integrity check operations Pigging is a broadly used process which is the act of propelling a specific sized spherical or cylindrical device through the inner part of a pipeline by changing the pressure flow of the existing media or by introducing media or by mechanically pulling the device through the inner side of pipeline for the specific purpose of cleaning inspecting or distributing inhibitor to the inner side of pipeline These include proper pipeline maintenance and cleaning to avoid obstructions and maintain effective operative conditions together with periodic non destructive inspections to assess both internal and external pipe line status to find possible flaws and damages before they become cause for concern Pipeline Inspection Gauges commonly called PIGs play a very important role in pipeline structure management by both cleaning and carrying out inspection procedures In the current scenario of pigging protocols the cleaning and inspection purposes are fulfilled by two different types of pigs the cleaning pigs and the instrumented In line Inspection ILI pigs 6 Cleaning pig is being used to remove debris and wax inner pipe accumulations and are available in a variety of different shapes materials and densities Foam or polyurethane pigs are flexible and can easily travel through multi diameter pipeline and pipelines with bends and are specifically suitable for removing the wax Mandrel pig has long life and composed of a metal body PIGs are devices inserted into a pipeline which travel easily inside the pipeline which travel freely through pipeline driven by the flow of product to do a particular task within the pipeline 

These tasks are categorized as follows 6 Utility PIGS used to perform functions such as cleaning separating products in line or dewatering In Line Inspection Tools give information related the condition of the line as well as the location and magnitude of any problems Gel PIGS used in conjunction with conventional pigs for pipeline dewatering cleaning and drying tasks A theory related to PIG is that two pipelines were standing next to a line when a pig went past As the PIG passed down in the line pushing out wax and debris one person made the comment that it is sounded like a Pig Squealing That is why this device is called PIG The pig in question consisted of leather sheets stacked together on a steel body Another theory is related to PIG is that it stands for Pipeline Intervention Gadget The very first pigging operation took place around the year of 1870 a few years later Colonel Drake discovered oil in Titusville Pennsylvania Before pipelines were used for transportation the oil was trucked to the refinery by horse drawn tank wagons This process considered to be very difficult during winter season because of heavy snows and frozen wagon tracks and in monsoon season when wagons would sink in the mud To improve upon this method of transportation a pipeline was constructed the material of which is not recorded but each length of pipe was almost certainly joined by the bell and spigot method that we see today in plastic pipe After transporting crude oil for a year or two through this pipeline the flow began to decrease and the pumping pressure increased indicating that there were deposits building up on the inside walls of the pipe Many things were tried to remove the paraffin deposits but nothing worked effectively for any period of time

Eventually the idea of pumping something through the pipeline was considered It has been suggested that a bundle of rags tied in a ball was used and with positive results Later bundles of leather were used in place of the rags Leather will swell when wet so it created a tight seal going through the pipeline During the construction of the line pigs can be used to remove debris that accumulates Testing the pipeline involves hydro testing and pigs are used to fill the line with water and subsequently to dewater the line after the successful test During operation pigs can be used to remove liquid hold up in the line clean wax off the pipe wall or apply corrosion inhibitors for example They can work in conjunction with chemicals to clean pipeline from various build ups Inspection pigs are used to assess the remaining wall thickness and extent of corrosion in the line thus providing timely information for the operator regarding the safety and operability of the line Pigs or more specifically plugs can be used to isolate the pipeline during a repair

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