Essay Example on Temperature on the rate of reaction of the enzyme Catalyse

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This experiment will investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalyse Biological catalyst called enzymes increase the rate of reaction without themselves being chemically changed Enzymes are globular proteins folded into a complex 3 dimensional shape that contains a special surface area called the active site where a specific substrate binds structurally and chemically Enzymes speed up reactions as they lower the activation energy In this experiment the enzyme used is catalase which is found in both plant cells and animal cells The catalase I will use is yeast which has 37oC optimal temperature similar to the natural human temperature The substrate that will be catalyses is hydrogen peroxide H2O2 which is a poisonous waste product in the human body Therefore the catalase enzyme will specifically catalyse the hydrolysis reaction of H2O2 into safe non poisonous products of water and oxygen gas The reaction is 2H2O2 2H2O O2 g This experiment will specifically investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction which can be calculated by measuring the speed of production formation In this experiment the production of O2 gas will determine the rate of reaction 



According to the Collision Theory for a reaction to occur particles By Increasing the temperature of the water baths it increases reaction rates because of the disproportionately large increase in the number of high energy collisions It is only these collisions which result in a reaction This will result in this case faster movement of H2O2 and catalase molecules will increase collision rate therefore also increase the number of effective collisions As a result more reactions will be catalysed and more oxygen gas will be produced in a given time thus enzyme activity and rate of reaction will increase After removing the mixture of yeast suspension from the water baths bubbles had formed This is because when the enzyme catalase comes into contact with its substrate in this experiment hydrogen peroxide it starts breaking it down into water and oxygen Oxygen is a gas and therefore wants to escape the liquid When the hydrogen peroxide is added to the yeast suspension traps the gas bubbles which results in the formation of a stable foam As long as there is enzyme and hydrogen peroxide present in the solution the reaction continues and foam is produced Once one of both compounds is depleted the product formation stops If there is no hydrogen peroxide present the catalase cannot function which is why in the first tube there was not much bubbles Only when hydrogen peroxide is available the catalase reaction can take place which is demonstrated in the results In fact the catalase reaction is dependent on the substrate concentration If you have an excess of enzyme but not enough substrate the reaction will be limited by the substrate availability Once you add more hydrogen peroxide to the solution the reaction rate will increase as more substrate molecules can collide with the enzyme forming more product The result is an increasing amount of bubbles produced in the test tube with the increase in temperature 



The catalase was working because the chemical reaction was occurring when oxygen bubbles was observed There was liquid based on theory is water because hydrogen peroxide down water and oxygen in the presence of a catalase Catalase work differently at various temperature in this experiment I can conclude that the catalase activity increase as the temperature increaser from 0oC to 45oC and decreases at the temperatures hotter than 45oC Having looked at my results and graph the optimal temperature for the catalyse activity is at 45oC because the highest amount of oxygen bubbles was observed at this temperature Once the optimum temperature is exceeded the catalase activity decreases this happens because the enzyme become denatured Denaturing occurs when the enzyme loses its shape due to resulting in the normal alpha helix and beta sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape 2 at the active site which is where the enzyme and substrate meet Thus they cannot match up because of the denatured active site meaning the reaction can no longer take place In conclusion enzymes are critical to life because they increase the speed of chemical reactions taking place in our cells without enzymes the reactions would take too long and not sufficient to support life The optimum temperature for enzymes in the human body is 37 5 O which is similar to the body temperature In the case of a fever where the temperature increases to between 39 4oCand 40oC for a long period time the enzyme becomes denatures resulting in death The human can cope with high temperature but for short periods of time in the case of a fever a denatured enzyme cannot be reversed meaning the damage is permanent meaning the affected person s body functions are not able to stay normal In the first test tube we poured and did not homogenize the yeast suspension and poured the yeast suspension into the hydrogen peroxide rather than hydrogen peroxide being poured into the yeast This can affect the test results because the yeast settles to the bottom meaning which can affect the results Another improvement that can be made is to use a micropipette to assist with the measuring accuracy because it was hard to obtain the exact measurement because of air bubbles and getting it to the line


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