The UN Security Council has the responsibility of maintaining global peace and security as described in the UN Charter. In its formation, the member states had a primary goal of achieving global diplomacy and averting the horrors witnessed in World War II Cannizzaro 192 2006. However, various states and political scholars have criticized the effectiveness of the UNSC in handling global challenges contemporary security issues and International threats. Most scholars point out that the UNSC's Veto power for its permanent members affects its decision making hence undermining its legitimacy as an international organization. This has been a lead to some scholars who argue that the UN Security Council is merely a concert of great powers that have never been representative of the International community. Other critics argue that the Security Council only serves the interest of the Super Power countries while the other around two hundred and seventy member states act as mere signatories Cannizzaro 200 2006. As evidenced in recent occurrences of International threats such as transnational terrorism and illicit arms trade the UNSC has hit a deadlock and is unable to respond to international challenges. As will be outlined below the Security Council's demonstration in solving various global conflicts brings to light the effectiveness and limitations of delegating the responsibility of maintenance of global peace to a small group of powers.
The Sahel region spreads from west to eastern Africa and comprises ten countries. It extends from northern Senegal to the tip of the northern parts of Ethiopia. This vast swath of land which is hardly in the news for good has suffered a series of struggles over the years, including famine conflicts, ethno, religious crises etc. These challenges which are interconnected in some ways have led to the instability of the region for many years. Mali a major country in the belt of the Sahel is witnessing a conflict that has raged on for many years. After years of stable democracy, the military coup of 2012 happened and left a power vacuum. This plunged the country into a long term conflict that has evaded all forms of resolutions. In 2017 the conflict in Mali is still ongoing despite numerous attempts to strike a peace deal prompting the Malian conflict to be described as the deadliest of the 16 UN's global peacekeeping operations Aljazeera 2017; The focus of this paper is to examine the ongoing conflict in Mali how it affects the neighboring areas and other countries in the Sahel region and proffer solutions that will bring peace and stability to the region. This is especially imperative as the conflict in Mali has evaded all forms of peaceful accords and seems to be spreading across the entire region. The genesis of the contemporary Mali conflict can be traced back to 2012 when a military coup overthrew the democratically elected government of Mali which was headed by then-President Amadou Toumane Toure.
This essay will discuss how the European Union, EU law is enforced with a focus on the UK Key enforcement mechanisms that are used by the EU will be discussed such as supremacy. Finally, potential deals that the UK could do post-Brexit, such as Norway will be discussed. One key mechanism is supremacy. Supremacy was discussed in Van Gend en Loos. The court stated that the Community constitutes a new legal order in international law for whose benefit the States have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited fields. However, Costa v ENEL held that where national law is found to be incompatible with EU law, then EU law shall prevail. This was seen in the UK in Macarthys v Smith in which Lord Denning stated the treaty takes priority over anything in our English statute whenever there is any inconsistency. Community law has priority. Thus backing up Costa in that EU law is supreme over UK law. Another mechanism is direct effect Eur lex states that the principle of direct effect enables individuals to immediately invoke a European provision before a national or European court. Eur lex goes on to state that the direct effect principle, therefore, ensures the application and effectiveness of European law in EU countries.
ABSTRACT. Pakistan and Isreal are considered as ideological twins. Because both countries got freedom on the basis of their religions. But both never had any diplomatic relations with each other, neither had any war directly. There are various reasons for not recognizing Isreal as a state one of the main reasons is solidarity with the Muslims of Palestine. Isreal and Pakistan tried to establish ties with each other but somehow did not work. Isreal’s relation with India has completed its 25 years and it has some major impacts on Pakistan. Moreover, another reason for not recognizing Isreal is that we the Muslims believe that Islam restraints us to do so. Nonetheless, if the relationship between Pakistan and Isreal is established, Pakistan can benefit from Isreal in many ways. This research paper will answer if it is possible for Pakistan to recognize Isreal. What are the main reasons for not recognizing Isreal. Lastly, can Pakistan and Isreal befriend. Keywords: Pakistan, Isreal, relations, Isreal’s relations with the middle east, Isreal friend or foe. Pre creation scenario of Pakistan and Isreal. History of Pakistan. Here is a brief history of Pakistan before independence. Before Partition both India and Pakistan were under the rule of Britain. Quaide Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah worked hard for the creation of Pakistan Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal have a deep inspiration of the Muslims of sub-continent. He infused a moving spirit and identity in the Muslims of India. By the efforts of Quaid e Azam the Muslim league held its annual session on 22 24 March 1940.
The United Kingdom’s airline loss is others gain you may think but not so. These agreements work both ways and other members of the European Common Aviation Area and those with third party agreements lose their privileges to fly into the United Kingdom. Without proper thought, this could prove to be a lose-lose situation for all. A vocal campaigner for Remain in the referendum was Michael O Leary, Chief Executive of RyanAir. He made his views well known during the campaign comparing Brexit to armageddon and stating As the UK’s largest airline RyanAir is absolutely clear that the UK economy and its future growth prospects are stronger as a member of the European Union than they are outside of the EU. And he has continued to make the case since the result urging the United Kingdom to ignore the result and remain in Europe. Ryanair was founded in 1984 and its first flight in 1985 was a 15 seater from Ireland to London Gatwick. It has seen its passenger numbers rise form 5 000 in that first year to 119 977 801 in 2016. It boasts a fleet of 400 aircraft over 1 800 routes and in 2017 88 of its flights arrived on time. Safe to say it is one of the main competitors in the low-cost carrier world in fact last year it flew more international passengers than any of its competitors. Ryanair has seen its adjusted profit after tax rise steadily in the past 5 years as follows Year M Variance from the previous year 2017 1 316 6 2016 1 242 43 2015 866 7 66 2014 522 8 8 2013 569 3 2. It is clear to see that they are still a force to be reckoned with but do have their competition. Michael Porter’s five forces of competition framework show us that there are five forms of competition to consider the existing competition, competition from substitutes threat of entry supplier bargaining power and customer bargaining power.